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Volume 16, Number 1—January 2010

Dispatch

Serologic Cross-Reactivity with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Pigs, Europe

Constantinos S. Kyriakis, Christopher W. Olsen, Susy Carman, Ian H. Brown, Sharon M. Brookes, Jan Van Doorsselaere, and Kristien Van ReethComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium (C.S. Kyriakis, K. Van Reeth); University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA (C.W. Olsen); University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (S. Carman); Veterinary Laboratories Agency-Weybridge, Addlestone, UK (I.H. Brown, S.M. Brookes); KATHO Catholic University of South-West Flanders, Roeselare, Belgium (J. Van Doorsselaere)

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Table

Serologic cross-reactivity between North American H1 SIVs and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus after experimental infection and/or immunization of pigs by various methods with European SIVs*

Group No. pigs Range of antibody titers of positive animals (no. pigs with HI antibody titers ≥10)
European SIVs
North American H1 SIVs
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cH1†
Swine/ Belgium/ 98 (H1N1) avH1† Swine/ Gent/99 (H1N2) huH1† Swine/ Flanders/98 (H3N2) huH3† Swine/ Iowa/2004 (H1N1) cH1† Swine/ Ontario/
2004 (H1N1)
cH1† Swine/ Indiana/99 (H1N2) cH1†
Infection‡
H1N1 (avH1†) 6 40–160 (6) –§ 10 (1)
H1N2 (huH1†) 6 40–160 (6)
H1N1 (avH1†)- 4w - 
 H1N2 (huH1†) 5 80–160 (5) 20–40 (5) 20 (4) 10–20 (5) 10–20 (5) 20–40 (5)
H1N2 (huH1†)- 4w - 
 H1N1 (avH1†) 4 80–160 (4) 160–320 (4) 10 (3) 10–40 (4) 20–80 (4) 20–40 (4) 20–160 (4)
H1N1 (avH1†)- 4w - 
 H3N2 (huH3†)
6
40–160 (6)

20–80 (6)


10–40 (3)
10–20 (4)
10–40 (6)
Double vaccination¶
New Jersey/8/76 
 (H1N1, cH1†) 6 10–40 (6) 10 (1) 10–80 (5) 80–160 (6) 20–80 (6) 80–320 (6) 10–20 (5)
Swine/Netherlands/25/ 
 80 (H1N1, avH1†) 6 10–40 (6) 10 (1) 10–160 (6) 20–40 (5) 10–80 (6) 10–40 (6) 10 (3)
Swine/Belgium/230/92
 (H1N1, avH1†) 6 20–640 (6) 10–20 (2) 20–320 (6) 10–320 (5) 10–320 (6) 10–160 (5) 10–640 (5)
Swine/Haselunne/2617/
 2003 (H1N1, avH1†)
6
10–40 (6)
40–160 (6)
20 (6)


20 (1)
10–20 (5)
10 (1)
Infection# followed by single vaccination
H1N1 (avH1†)- 4w - 
 New Jersey/8/76
6
640–2,560 (6)
10 (3)
10 (1)

40–80 (6)
40–80 (6)
80–320 (6)
40–80 (6)
Hyperimmunization**
H1N1 (avH1†) 3 320–1,280 (3) 10–20 (2) 40–160 (3) 40–160 (3) 40–80 (3) 40–160 (3)
H1N2 (huH1†) 3 40 (1) 320–1,280 (3) 20 (1) 10–80 (2) 40 (1) 80 (1)
H3N2 (huH3†) 3 160–640 
(3)

*SIV, swine influenza virus.
†Phylogenetic lineage of the hemagglutinin gene: c, classical swine; hu, human; av, avian.
‡Infection with swine/Belgium/1/98 (H1N1), swine/Gent/7625/99 (H1N2), or swine/Flanders/1/98 (H3N2).
§Antibody titers <10 in all pigs.
Only the influenza (H1N1) vaccine component is shown. The first 3 vaccines are bivalent (subtypes H1N1, H3N2); the fourth is trivalent (subtypes H1N1, H3N2, H1N2).
#Infection with swine/Belgium/1/98 (H1N1).
**Each individual pig was hyperimmunized with a different European SIV isolate: subtype H1N1 viruses were swine/Finistère/2899/82, swine/Belgium/1/98, and swine/Gent/132/2005; subtype H1N2 viruses were swine/Scotland/410440/94, swine/Gent/7625/99, and swine/Gent/177/2002; subtype H3N2 viruses were swine/Gent/1/84, swine/Flanders/1/98, and swine/Gent/131/2005.

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