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Volume 16, Number 2—February 2010

Research

Emergence of Increased Resistance and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Despite Treatment Adherence, South Africa

Alistair D. Calver1, Alecia A. Falmer1, Megan Murray, Odelia J. Strauss, Elizabeth M. Streicher, Madelene Hanekom, Thelma Liversage, Mothusi Masibi, Paul D. van Helden, Robin M. Warren, and Thomas C. VictorComments to Author 
Author affiliations: West Vaal Hospital, Orkney, South Africa (A.D. Calver, T. Liversage, M. Masibi); Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa (A.A. Falmer, O.J. Strauss, E.M. Streicher, M. Hanekom, P.D. van Helden, R.M. Warren, T.C. Victor); Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (M. Murray)

Main Article

Appendix Figure

Genotype and phenotype classification drug-resistant isolates from each case-patient. Insertion sequence (IS) 6110 DNA fingerprints of a single Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate from 122 case-patients, South Africa, 2003-2005 are shown. Spoligotype patterns from 126 case-patients are shown. Isolated from 74 case-patients were grouped into 11 clusters (4 clusters had 2 cases, 4 clusters had 3 cases, 1 cluster had 4 cases, 1 cluster had 8 cases and 1 cluster had 42 cases). Mycobacterial intersper

Appendix Figure. Genotype and phenotype classification drug-resistant isolates from each case-patient. Insertion sequence (IS) 6110 DNA fingerprints of a single Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate from 122 case-patients, South Africa, 2003-2005 are shown. Spoligotype patterns from 126 case-patients are shown. Isolated from 74 case-patients were grouped into 11 clusters (4 clusters had 2 cases, 4 clusters had 3 cases, 1 cluster had 4 cases, 1 cluster had 8 cases and 1 cluster had 42 cases). Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) types are shown for strains with <5 IS6110 hybridizing bands. Drug-resistant phenotypes of each isolate are illustrated: H, isoniazid, R, rifampin, E, ethambutol, Z, pyrazinamide, Et, ethionamide, S, streptomycin, K, kanamycin, Ofx, ofloxacin. Drug-resistance classification for each case is indicated. RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism; NA, not available.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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