Figure. Phylogenetic analysis of human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) nucleotide sequences. The concatenated dataset of 746 open reading frame (ORF) 1 nt and 558 ORF2 nt (except for strains 14 [550 nt sequenced in ORF1] and 16 [218 nt sequenced in ORF2]) was subjected to neighbor-joining–based phylogenetic analysis with 1,000 bootstrap replicates in MEGA4 by using the Kimura substitution model and the complete deletion option for gaps (14). Bovine hokovirus was used as an outgroup because it is the closest relative to human PARV4. Numbers next to branches indicate bootstrap support values in percent (only selected branches are annotated). Numbers next to strain designations indicate PARV4 genotypes 1, 2, and 3. Sequences are deposited in GenBank (accession nos. GU951546–GU951569); sequencing primers available upon request from the authors. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.