Volume 16, Number 7—July 2010
Volume 16, Number 7—July 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 4.48 MB - 143 pages]
Persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Natural Ecosystems
PDF Version [PDF - 72 KB - 7 pages]
C. Lebarbenchon et al.View Abstract
Understanding of ecologic factors favoring emergence and maintenance of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses is limited. Although low pathogenic avian influenza viruses persist and evolve in wild populations, HPAI viruses evolve in domestic birds and cause economically serious epizootics that only occasionally infect wild populations. We propose that evolutionary ecology considerations can explain this apparent paradox. Host structure and transmission possibilities differ considerably between wild and domestic birds and are likely to be major determinants of virulence. Because viral fitness is highly dependent on host survival and dispersal in nature, virulent forms are unlikely to persist in wild populations if they kill hosts quickly or affect predation risk or migratory performance. Interhost transmission in water has evolved in low pathogenic influenza viruses in wild waterfowl populations. However, oropharyngeal shedding and transmission by aerosols appear more efficient for HPAI viruses among domestic birds.
Medscape CME Activity
Extensive Drug Resistance in Malaria and Tuberculosis PDF Version [PDF - 106 KB - 5 pages]C. Wongsrichanalai et al.View Abstract
Drug resistance in malaria and in tuberculosis (TB) are major global health problems. Although the terms multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drug-resistant TB are precisely defined, the term multidrug resistance is often loosely used when discussing malaria. Recent declines in the clinical effectiveness of antimalarial drugs, including artemisinin-based combination therapy, have prompted the need to revise the definitions of and/or to recategorize antimalarial drug resistance to include extensively drug-resistant malaria. Applying precise case definitions to different levels of drug resistance in malaria and TB is useful for individual patient care and for public health.
Oseltamivir Resistance in Adult Oncology and Hematology Patients Infected with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Australia
PDF Version [PDF - 166 KB - 8 pages]
A. R. Tramontana et al.View Abstract
We describe laboratory-confirmed influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in 17 hospitalized recipients of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) (8 allogeneic) and in 15 patients with malignancy treated at 6 Australian tertiary centers during winter 2009. Ten (31.3%) patients were admitted to intensive care, and 9 of them were HSCT recipients. All recipients of allogeneic HSCT with infection <100 days posttransplantation or severe graft-versus-host disease were admitted to an intensive care unit. In-hospital mortality rate was 21.9% (7/32). The H275Y neuraminidase mutation, which confers oseltamivir resistance developed in 4 of 7 patients with PCR positive for influenza after >4 days of oseltamivir therapy. Three of these 4 patients were critically ill. Oseltamivir resistance in 4 (13.3%) of 30 patients who were administered oseltamivir highlights the need for ongoing surveillance of such resistance and further research on optimal antiviral therapy in the immunocompromised.
Population Structure of East African Relapsing Fever Borrelia spp.
PDF Version [PDF - 120 KB - 5 pages]
S. J. Cutler et al.View Abstract
Differentiation of endemic East African tick-borne relapsing fever Borrelia duttonii spirochetes from epidemic louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) B. recurrentis spirochetes into different species has been questioned. We assessed a noncoding intragenic spacer (IGS) region to compare genotypes found in clinical samples from relapsing fever patients. Although IGS typing was highly discriminatory and resolved 4 East African tick-borne relapsing fever groups from a disease-endemic region in Tanzania, 2 IGS clades were found among LBRF patients in Ethiopia. The 2 IGS sequence types for B. recurrentis overlapped with 2 of the 4 groups found among B. duttonii. All cultivable isolates of B. duttonii fell into a single IGS cluster, which suggests their analysis might introduce selective bias. We provide further support that B. recurrentis is a subset of B. duttonii and represents an ecotype rather than a species. These observations have disease control implications and suggest LBRF Borrelia spp. could reemerge from its tick-borne reservoirs where vectors coexist.
Human Infection with Rickettsia felis, Kenya
PDF Version [PDF - 170 KB - 6 pages]
A. L. Richards et al.View Abstract
To determine the cause of acute febrile illnesses other than malaria in the North Eastern Province, Kenya, we investigated rickettsial infection among patients from Garissa Provincial Hospital for 23 months during 2006–2008. Nucleic acid preparations of serum from 6 (3.7%) of 163 patients were positive for rickettsial DNA as determined by a genus-specific quantitative real-time PCR and were subsequently confirmed by molecular sequencing to be positive for Rickettsia felis. The 6 febrile patients’ symptoms included headache; nausea; and muscle, back, and joint pain. None of the patients had a skin rash.
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Associated with Novel Virus Strain, Uganda, 2007–2008
PDF Version [PDF - 146 KB - 6 pages]
J. F. Wamala et al.View Abstract
During August 2007–February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78–8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions.
High Diversity and Ancient Common Ancestry of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus
PDF Version [PDF - 366 KB - 8 pages]
C. G. Albariño et al.View Abstract
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is the prototype of the family Arenaviridae. LCMV can be associated with severe disease in humans, and its global distribution reflects the broad dispersion of the primary rodent reservoir, the house mouse (Mus musculus). Recent interest in the natural history of the virus has been stimulated by increasing recognition of LCMV infections during pregnancy, and in clusters of LCMV-associated fatal illness among tissue transplant recipients. Despite its public health importance, little is known regarding the genetic diversity or distribution of virus variants. Genomic analysis of 29 LCMV strains collected from a variety of geographic and temporal sources showed these viruses to be highly diverse. Several distinct lineages exist, but there is little correlation with time or place of isolation. Bayesian analysis estimates the most recent common ancestor to be 1,000–5,000 years old, and this long history is consistent with complex phylogeographic relationships of the extant virus isolates.
Zoonotic Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1), Egypt, 2006–2009
PDF Version [PDF - 212 KB - 7 pages]
A. Kandeel et al.View Abstract
During March 2006–March 2009, a total of 6,355 suspected cases of avian influenza (H5N1) were reported to the Ministry of Health in Egypt. Sixty-three (1%) patients had confirmed infections; 24 (38%) died. Risk factors for death included female sex, age >15 years, and receiving the first dose of oseltamivir >2 days after illness onset. All but 2 case-patients reported exposure to domestic poultry probably infected with avian influenza virus (H5N1). No cases of human-to-human transmission were found. Greatest risks for infection and death were reported among women >15 years of age, who accounted for 38% of infections and 83% of deaths. The lower case-fatality rate in Egypt could be caused by a less virulent virus clade. However, the lower mortality rate seems to be caused by the large number of infected children who were identified early, received prompt treatment, and had less severe clinical disease.
Deforestation and Malaria in Mâncio Lima County, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 394 KB - 8 pages]
S. H. Olson et al.View Abstract
Malaria is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the Amazon. We used malaria reports for health districts collected in 2006 by the Programa Nacional de Controle da Malária to determine whether deforestation is associated with malaria incidence in the county (município) of Mâncio Lima, Acre State, Brazil. Cumulative percent deforestation was calculated for the spatial catchment area of each health district by using 60 × 60–meter, resolution-classified imagery. Statistical associations were identified with univariate and multivariate general additive negative binomial models adjusted for spatial effects. Our cross-sectional study shows malaria incidence across health districts in 2006 is positively associated with greater changes in percentage of cumulative deforestation within respective health districts. After adjusting for access to care, health district size, and spatial trends, we show that a 4.3%, or 1 SD, change in deforestation from August 1997 through August 2000 is associated with a 48% increase of malaria incidence.
Fatal Babesiosis in Man, Finland, 2004
PDF Version [PDF - 204 KB - 3 pages]
K. Haapasalo et al.View Abstract
We report an unusual case of human babesiosis in Finland in a 53-year-old man with no history of splenectomy. He had a rudimentary spleen, coexisting Lyme borreliosis, exceptional dark streaks on his extremities, and subsequent disseminated aspergillosis. He was infected with Babesia divergens, which usually causes bovine babesiosis in Finland.
Human Parechovirus Infections in Monkeys with Diarrhea, China
PDF Version [PDF - 172 KB - 2 pages]
T. Shan et al.View Abstract
Information about human parechovirus (HPeV) infection in animals is scant. Using 5′ untranslated region reverse transcription–PCR, we detected HPeV in feces of monkeys with diarrhea and sequenced the complete genome of 1 isolate (SH6). Monkeys may serve as reservoirs for zoonotic HPeV transmissions and as models for studies of HPeV pathogenesis.
Postexposure Treatment of Marburg Virus Infection
PDF Version [PDF - 265 KB - 4 pages]
T. W. Geisbert et al.View Abstract
Rhesus monkeys are protected from disease when a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus–based vaccine is administered 20–30 min after infection with Marburg virus. We protected 5/6 monkeys when this vaccine was given 24 h after challenge; 2/6 animals were protected when the vaccine was administered 48 h postinfection.
Detection of Lassa Virus, Mali
PDF Version [PDF - 319 KB - 4 pages]
D. Safronetz et al.View Abstract
To determine whether Lassa virus was circulating in southern Mali, we tested samples from small mammals from 3 villages, including Soromba, where in 2009 a British citizen probably contracted a lethal Lassa virus infection. We report the isolation and genetic characterization of Lassa virus from an area previously unknown for Lassa fever.
Septicemia Caused by Tick-borne Bacterial Pathogen Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis
PDF Version [PDF - 270 KB - 3 pages]
J. S. Fehr et al.View Abstract
We have repeatedly detected Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, a bacterium first described in Rattus norvegicus rats and Ixodes ovatus ticks in Japan in 2004 in the blood of a 61-year-old man with signs of septicemia by 16S rRNA and groEL gene PCR. After 6 weeks of therapy with doxycycline and rifampin, the patient recovered.
Evolution of Seventh Cholera Pandemic and Origin of 1991 Epidemic, Latin America
PDF Version [PDF - 165 KB - 3 pages]
C. Lam et al.View Abstract
Thirty single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used to track the spread of the seventh pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae. Isolates from the 1991 epidemic in Latin America shared a profile with 1970s isolates from Africa, suggesting a possible origin in Africa. Data also showed that the observed genotypes spread easily and widely.
Vaccine-associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis in Immunodeficient Children, Iran, 1995–2008
PDF Version [PDF - 152 KB - 4 pages]
S. Shahmahmoodi et al.View Abstract
To determine the prevalence of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in immunodeficient infants, we reviewed all documented cases caused by immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses in Iran from 1995 through 2008. Changing to an inactivated polio vaccine vaccination schedule and introduction of screening of neonates for immunodeficiencies could reduce the risk for VAPP infection.
Dogs as Sentinels for Human Infection with Japanese Encephalitis Virus
PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
H. Shimoda et al.View Abstract
Because serosurveys of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) among wild animals and pigs may not accurately reflect risk for humans in urban/residential areas, we examined seroprevalence among dogs and cats. We found that JEV-infected mosquitoes have spread throughout Japan and that dogs, but not cats, might be good sentinels for monitoring JEV infection in urban/residential areas.
Rickettsia felis–associated Uneruptive Fever, Senegal
PDF Version [PDF - 172 KB - 3 pages]
C. Socolovschi et al.View Abstract
During November 2008–July 2009, we investigated the origin of unknown fever in Senegalese patients with a negative malaria test result, focusing on potential rickettsial infection. Using molecular tools, we found evidence for Rickettsia felis–associated illness in the initial days of infection in febrile Senegalese patients without malaria.
Novel Human Parvovirus 4 Genotype 3 in Infants, Ghana
PDF Version [PDF - 273 KB - 4 pages]
M. Panning et al.View Abstract
Human parvovirus 4 has been considered to be transmitted only parenterally. However, after novel genotype 3 of parvovirus 4 was found in 2 patients with no parenteral risks, we tested infants in Ghana. A viremia rate of 8.6% over 2 years indicates that this infection is common in children in Africa.
Geographic Differences in Genetic Locus Linkages for Borrelia burgdorferi
PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 4 pages]
B. Travinsky et al.View Abstract
Borrelia burdorferi genotype in the northeastern United States is associated with Lyme borreliosis severity. Analysis of DNA sequences of the outer surface protein C gene and rrs-rrlA intergenic spacer from extracts of Ixodes spp. ticks in 3 US regions showed linkage disequilibrium between the 2 loci within a region but not consistently between regions.
Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues
PDF Version [PDF - 560 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Iwamaru et al.View Abstract
We recently reported the intraspecies transmission of L-type atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). To clarify the peripheral pathogenesis of L-type BSE, we studied prion distribution in nerve and lymphoid tissues obtained from experimentally challenged cattle. As with classical BSE prions, L-type BSE prions accumulated in central and peripheral nerve tissues.
Cryptococcus gattii Genotype VGIIa Infection in Man, Japan, 2007
PDF Version [PDF - 212 KB - 3 pages]
K. Okamoto et al.View Abstract
We report a patient in Japan infected with Cryptococcus gattii genotype VGIIa who had no recent history of travel to disease-endemic areas. This strain was identical to the Vancouver Island outbreak strain R265. Our results suggest that this virulent strain has spread to regions outside North America.
Saffold Cardioviruses of 3 Lineages in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections, Beijing, China
PDF Version [PDF - 388 KB - 4 pages]
L. Ren et al.View Abstract
To clarify the potential for respiratory transmission of Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) and characterize the pathogen, we analyzed respiratory specimens from 1,558 pediatric patients in Beijing. We detected SAFV in 7 (0.5%) patients and identified lineages 1–3. However, because 3 patients had co-infections, we could not definitively say SAFV caused disease.
Novel Swine Influenza Virus Reassortants in Pigs, China
PDF Version [PDF - 152 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Bi et al.View Abstract
During swine influenza virus surveillance in pigs in China during 2006–2009, we isolated subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 and found novel reassortment between contemporary swine and avian panzootic viruses. These reassortment events raise concern about generation of novel viruses in pigs, which could have pandemic potential.
Long-term Shedding of Influenza A Virus in Stool of Immunocompromised Child
PDF Version [PDF - 188 KB - 3 pages]
B. A. Pinsky et al.View Abstract
In immunocompromised patients, influenza infection may progress to prolonged viral shedding from the respiratory tract despite antiviral therapy. We describe chronic influenza A virus infection in an immunocompromised child who had prolonged shedding of culturable influenza virus in stool.
ACC-1 β-Lactamase–producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, India
PDF Version [PDF - 118 KB - 2 pages]
B. N. Gokul et al.
Endocarditis Caused by Actinobaculum schaalii, Austria
PDF Version [PDF - 129 KB - 3 pages]
M. Hoenigl et al.
Mycobacterium chelonae Wound Infection after Liposuction
PDF Version [PDF - 136 KB - 3 pages]
M. J. Kim and L. Mascola
Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and HIV
PDF Version [PDF - 130 KB - 2 pages]
M. Mora et al.
Roseomonas sp. Isolated from Ticks, China
PDF Version [PDF - 150 KB - 2 pages]
W. Liu et al.
Misindentification of Mycobacterium kumamotonense as M. tuberculosis
PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 3 pages]
A. Rodríguez-Aranda et al.
Mycobacterium conceptionense Infection after Breast Implant Surgery, France
PDF Version [PDF - 89 KB - 2 pages]
S. Thibeaut et al.
Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Severity of Illness in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Taiwan
PDF Version [PDF - 110 KB - 3 pages]
T. Kao et al.
Human Brucella canis Infections Diagnosed by Blood Culture
PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 3 pages]
A. Nomura et al.
Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Patient with Impaired Immune System
PDF Version [PDF - 92 KB - 2 pages]
G. A. Hill-Cawthorne et al.
Sapovirus in Adults in Rehabilitation Center, Upper Austria
PDF Version [PDF - 109 KB - 2 pages]
C. Mikula et al.
Books and Media
Inside the Outbreaks: The Elite Medical Detectives of the Epidemic Intelligence Service
PDF Version [PDF - 143 KB - 1 page]
S. C. Shafir
About the Cover
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online Only15th International Workshop on Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms PDF Version [PDF - 27 KB - 4 pages]J. E. Moore and M. Matsuda
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