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Volume 16, Number 7—July 2010

Volume 16, Number 7—July 2010   PDF Version [PDF - 4.48 MB - 143 pages]

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases 2010 Poster and Oral Presentation Abstracts

Perspective

  • Persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Natural Ecosystems PDF Version [PDF - 72 KB - 7 pages]
    C. Lebarbenchon et al.
        View Abstract

    Understanding of ecologic factors favoring emergence and maintenance of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses is limited. Although low pathogenic avian influenza viruses persist and evolve in wild populations, HPAI viruses evolve in domestic birds and cause economically serious epizootics that only occasionally infect wild populations. We propose that evolutionary ecology considerations can explain this apparent paradox. Host structure and transmission possibilities differ considerably between wild and domestic birds and are likely to be major determinants of virulence. Because viral fitness is highly dependent on host survival and dispersal in nature, virulent forms are unlikely to persist in wild populations if they kill hosts quickly or affect predation risk or migratory performance. Interhost transmission in water has evolved in low pathogenic influenza viruses in wild waterfowl populations. However, oropharyngeal shedding and transmission by aerosols appear more efficient for HPAI viruses among domestic birds.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lebarbenchon C, Feare CJ, Renaud F, Thomas F, Gauthier-Clerc M. Persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Natural Ecosystems. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1057-1062. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.090389
    AMA Lebarbenchon C, Feare CJ, Renaud F, et al. Persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Natural Ecosystems. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1057-1062. doi:10.3201/eid1607.090389.
    APA Lebarbenchon, C., Feare, C. J., Renaud, F., Thomas, F., & Gauthier-Clerc, M. (2010). Persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Natural Ecosystems. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1057-1062. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.090389.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Extensive Drug Resistance in Malaria and Tuberculosis PDF Version [PDF - 106 KB - 5 pages]
    C. Wongsrichanalai et al.
        View Abstract

    Drug resistance in malaria and in tuberculosis (TB) are major global health problems. Although the terms multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drug-resistant TB are precisely defined, the term multidrug resistance is often loosely used when discussing malaria. Recent declines in the clinical effectiveness of antimalarial drugs, including artemisinin-based combination therapy, have prompted the need to revise the definitions of and/or to recategorize antimalarial drug resistance to include extensively drug-resistant malaria. Applying precise case definitions to different levels of drug resistance in malaria and TB is useful for individual patient care and for public health.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wongsrichanalai C, Varma JK, Juliano JJ, Kimerling ME, MacArthur JR. Extensive Drug Resistance in Malaria and Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1063-1067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091840
    AMA Wongsrichanalai C, Varma JK, Juliano JJ, et al. Extensive Drug Resistance in Malaria and Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1063-1067. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091840.
    APA Wongsrichanalai, C., Varma, J. K., Juliano, J. J., Kimerling, M. E., & MacArthur, J. R. (2010). Extensive Drug Resistance in Malaria and Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1063-1067. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091840.

Synopses

  • Oseltamivir Resistance in Adult Oncology and Hematology Patients Infected with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Australia PDF Version [PDF - 166 KB - 8 pages]
    A. R. Tramontana et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe laboratory-confirmed influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in 17 hospitalized recipients of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) (8 allogeneic) and in 15 patients with malignancy treated at 6 Australian tertiary centers during winter 2009. Ten (31.3%) patients were admitted to intensive care, and 9 of them were HSCT recipients. All recipients of allogeneic HSCT with infection <100 days posttransplantation or severe graft-versus-host disease were admitted to an intensive care unit. In-hospital mortality rate was 21.9% (7/32). The H275Y neuraminidase mutation, which confers oseltamivir resistance developed in 4 of 7 patients with PCR positive for influenza after >4 days of oseltamivir therapy. Three of these 4 patients were critically ill. Oseltamivir resistance in 4 (13.3%) of 30 patients who were administered oseltamivir highlights the need for ongoing surveillance of such resistance and further research on optimal antiviral therapy in the immunocompromised.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tramontana AR, George B, Hurt AC, Doyle JS, Langan K, Reid AB, et al. Oseltamivir Resistance in Adult Oncology and Hematology Patients Infected with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1068-1075. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091691
    AMA Tramontana AR, George B, Hurt AC, et al. Oseltamivir Resistance in Adult Oncology and Hematology Patients Infected with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1068-1075. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091691.
    APA Tramontana, A. R., George, B., Hurt, A. C., Doyle, J. S., Langan, K., Reid, A. B....Slavin, M. (2010). Oseltamivir Resistance in Adult Oncology and Hematology Patients Infected with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1068-1075. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091691.

Research

  • Population Structure of East African Relapsing Fever Borrelia spp. PDF Version [PDF - 120 KB - 5 pages]
    S. J. Cutler et al.
        View Abstract

    Differentiation of endemic East African tick-borne relapsing fever Borrelia duttonii spirochetes from epidemic louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) B. recurrentis spirochetes into different species has been questioned. We assessed a noncoding intragenic spacer (IGS) region to compare genotypes found in clinical samples from relapsing fever patients. Although IGS typing was highly discriminatory and resolved 4 East African tick-borne relapsing fever groups from a disease-endemic region in Tanzania, 2 IGS clades were found among LBRF patients in Ethiopia. The 2 IGS sequence types for B. recurrentis overlapped with 2 of the 4 groups found among B. duttonii. All cultivable isolates of B. duttonii fell into a single IGS cluster, which suggests their analysis might introduce selective bias. We provide further support that B. recurrentis is a subset of B. duttonii and represents an ecotype rather than a species. These observations have disease control implications and suggest LBRF Borrelia spp. could reemerge from its tick-borne reservoirs where vectors coexist.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cutler SJ, Bonilla EM, Singh RJ. Population Structure of East African Relapsing Fever Borrelia spp.. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1076-1080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091085
    AMA Cutler SJ, Bonilla EM, Singh RJ. Population Structure of East African Relapsing Fever Borrelia spp.. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1076-1080. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091085.
    APA Cutler, S. J., Bonilla, E. M., & Singh, R. J. (2010). Population Structure of East African Relapsing Fever Borrelia spp.. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1076-1080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091085.
  • Human Infection with Rickettsia felis, Kenya PDF Version [PDF - 170 KB - 6 pages]
    A. L. Richards et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the cause of acute febrile illnesses other than malaria in the North Eastern Province, Kenya, we investigated rickettsial infection among patients from Garissa Provincial Hospital for 23 months during 2006–2008. Nucleic acid preparations of serum from 6 (3.7%) of 163 patients were positive for rickettsial DNA as determined by a genus-specific quantitative real-time PCR and were subsequently confirmed by molecular sequencing to be positive for Rickettsia felis. The 6 febrile patients’ symptoms included headache; nausea; and muscle, back, and joint pain. None of the patients had a skin rash.

        Cite This Article
    EID Richards AL, Jiang J, Omulo S, Dare R, Abdirahman K, Ali A, et al. Human Infection with Rickettsia felis, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1081-1086. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091885
    AMA Richards AL, Jiang J, Omulo S, et al. Human Infection with Rickettsia felis, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1081-1086. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091885.
    APA Richards, A. L., Jiang, J., Omulo, S., Dare, R., Abdirahman, K., Ali, A....Njenga, M. K. (2010). Human Infection with Rickettsia felis, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1081-1086. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091885.
  • Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Associated with Novel Virus Strain, Uganda, 2007–2008 PDF Version [PDF - 146 KB - 6 pages]
    J. F. Wamala et al.
        View Abstract

    During August 2007–February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78–8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wamala JF, Lukwago L, Malimbo M, Nguku P, Yoti Z, Musenero M, et al. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Associated with Novel Virus Strain, Uganda, 2007–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1087-1092. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091525
    AMA Wamala JF, Lukwago L, Malimbo M, et al. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Associated with Novel Virus Strain, Uganda, 2007–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1087-1092. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091525.
    APA Wamala, J. F., Lukwago, L., Malimbo, M., Nguku, P., Yoti, Z., Musenero, M....Okware, S. I. (2010). Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Associated with Novel Virus Strain, Uganda, 2007–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1087-1092. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091525.
  • High Diversity and Ancient Common Ancestry of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus PDF Version [PDF - 366 KB - 8 pages]
    C. G. Albariño et al.
        View Abstract

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is the prototype of the family Arenaviridae. LCMV can be associated with severe disease in humans, and its global distribution reflects the broad dispersion of the primary rodent reservoir, the house mouse (Mus musculus). Recent interest in the natural history of the virus has been stimulated by increasing recognition of LCMV infections during pregnancy, and in clusters of LCMV-associated fatal illness among tissue transplant recipients. Despite its public health importance, little is known regarding the genetic diversity or distribution of virus variants. Genomic analysis of 29 LCMV strains collected from a variety of geographic and temporal sources showed these viruses to be highly diverse. Several distinct lineages exist, but there is little correlation with time or place of isolation. Bayesian analysis estimates the most recent common ancestor to be 1,000–5,000 years old, and this long history is consistent with complex phylogeographic relationships of the extant virus isolates.

        Cite This Article
    EID Albariño CG, Palacios G, Khristova ML, Erickson BR, Carroll SA, Comer JA, et al. High Diversity and Ancient Common Ancestry of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1093-1100. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091902
    AMA Albariño CG, Palacios G, Khristova ML, et al. High Diversity and Ancient Common Ancestry of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1093-1100. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091902.
    APA Albariño, C. G., Palacios, G., Khristova, M. L., Erickson, B. R., Carroll, S. A., Comer, J. A....Nichol, S. T. (2010). High Diversity and Ancient Common Ancestry of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1093-1100. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091902.
  • Zoonotic Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1), Egypt, 2006–2009 PDF Version [PDF - 212 KB - 7 pages]
    A. Kandeel et al.
        View Abstract

    During March 2006–March 2009, a total of 6,355 suspected cases of avian influenza (H5N1) were reported to the Ministry of Health in Egypt. Sixty-three (1%) patients had confirmed infections; 24 (38%) died. Risk factors for death included female sex, age >15 years, and receiving the first dose of oseltamivir >2 days after illness onset. All but 2 case-patients reported exposure to domestic poultry probably infected with avian influenza virus (H5N1). No cases of human-to-human transmission were found. Greatest risks for infection and death were reported among women >15 years of age, who accounted for 38% of infections and 83% of deaths. The lower case-fatality rate in Egypt could be caused by a less virulent virus clade. However, the lower mortality rate seems to be caused by the large number of infected children who were identified early, received prompt treatment, and had less severe clinical disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kandeel A, Manoncourt S, el Kareem EA, Ahmed AM, El-Refaie S, Essmat H, et al. Zoonotic Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1), Egypt, 2006–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1101-1107. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091695
    AMA Kandeel A, Manoncourt S, el Kareem EA, et al. Zoonotic Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1), Egypt, 2006–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1101-1107. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091695.
    APA Kandeel, A., Manoncourt, S., el Kareem, E. A., Ahmed, A. M., El-Refaie, S., Essmat, H....El-Sayed, N. (2010). Zoonotic Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1), Egypt, 2006–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1101-1107. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091695.
  • Deforestation and Malaria in Mâncio Lima County, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 394 KB - 8 pages]
    S. H. Olson et al.
        View Abstract

    Malaria is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the Amazon. We used malaria reports for health districts collected in 2006 by the Programa Nacional de Controle da Malária to determine whether deforestation is associated with malaria incidence in the county (município) of Mâncio Lima, Acre State, Brazil. Cumulative percent deforestation was calculated for the spatial catchment area of each health district by using 60 × 60–meter, resolution-classified imagery. Statistical associations were identified with univariate and multivariate general additive negative binomial models adjusted for spatial effects. Our cross-sectional study shows malaria incidence across health districts in 2006 is positively associated with greater changes in percentage of cumulative deforestation within respective health districts. After adjusting for access to care, health district size, and spatial trends, we show that a 4.3%, or 1 SD, change in deforestation from August 1997 through August 2000 is associated with a 48% increase of malaria incidence.

        Cite This Article
    EID Olson SH, Gangnon R, Silveira GA, Patz JA. Deforestation and Malaria in Mâncio Lima County, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1108-1115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091785
    AMA Olson SH, Gangnon R, Silveira GA, et al. Deforestation and Malaria in Mâncio Lima County, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1108-1115. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091785.
    APA Olson, S. H., Gangnon, R., Silveira, G. A., & Patz, J. A. (2010). Deforestation and Malaria in Mâncio Lima County, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1108-1115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091785.

Dispatches

  • Fatal Babesiosis in Man, Finland, 2004 PDF Version [PDF - 204 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Haapasalo et al.
        View Abstract

    We report an unusual case of human babesiosis in Finland in a 53-year-old man with no history of splenectomy. He had a rudimentary spleen, coexisting Lyme borreliosis, exceptional dark streaks on his extremities, and subsequent disseminated aspergillosis. He was infected with Babesia divergens, which usually causes bovine babesiosis in Finland.

        Cite This Article
    EID Haapasalo K, Suomalainen P, Sukura A, Siikamäki H, Jokiranta TS. Fatal Babesiosis in Man, Finland, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1116-1118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091905
    AMA Haapasalo K, Suomalainen P, Sukura A, et al. Fatal Babesiosis in Man, Finland, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1116-1118. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091905.
    APA Haapasalo, K., Suomalainen, P., Sukura, A., Siikamäki, H., & Jokiranta, T. S. (2010). Fatal Babesiosis in Man, Finland, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1116-1118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091905.
  • Human Parechovirus Infections in Monkeys with Diarrhea, China PDF Version [PDF - 172 KB - 2 pages]
    T. Shan et al.
        View Abstract

    Information about human parechovirus (HPeV) infection in animals is scant. Using 5′ untranslated region reverse transcription–PCR, we detected HPeV in feces of monkeys with diarrhea and sequenced the complete genome of 1 isolate (SH6). Monkeys may serve as reservoirs for zoonotic HPeV transmissions and as models for studies of HPeV pathogenesis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Shan T, Wang C, Cui L, Delwart E, Yuan C, Zhao W, et al. Human Parechovirus Infections in Monkeys with Diarrhea, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1168-1169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091103
    AMA Shan T, Wang C, Cui L, et al. Human Parechovirus Infections in Monkeys with Diarrhea, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1168-1169. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091103.
    APA Shan, T., Wang, C., Cui, L., Delwart, E., Yuan, C., Zhao, W....Hua, X. G. (2010). Human Parechovirus Infections in Monkeys with Diarrhea, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1168-1169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091103.
  • Postexposure Treatment of Marburg Virus Infection PDF Version [PDF - 265 KB - 4 pages]
    T. W. Geisbert et al.
        View Abstract

    Rhesus monkeys are protected from disease when a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus–based vaccine is administered 20–30 min after infection with Marburg virus. We protected 5/6 monkeys when this vaccine was given 24 h after challenge; 2/6 animals were protected when the vaccine was administered 48 h postinfection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Geisbert TW, Hensley LE, Geisbert JB, Leung A, Johnson JC, Grolla A, et al. Postexposure Treatment of Marburg Virus Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1119-1122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100159
    AMA Geisbert TW, Hensley LE, Geisbert JB, et al. Postexposure Treatment of Marburg Virus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1119-1122. doi:10.3201/eid1607.100159.
    APA Geisbert, T. W., Hensley, L. E., Geisbert, J. B., Leung, A., Johnson, J. C., Grolla, A....Feldmann, H. (2010). Postexposure Treatment of Marburg Virus Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1119-1122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100159.
  • Detection of Lassa Virus, Mali PDF Version [PDF - 319 KB - 4 pages]
    D. Safronetz et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine whether Lassa virus was circulating in southern Mali, we tested samples from small mammals from 3 villages, including Soromba, where in 2009 a British citizen probably contracted a lethal Lassa virus infection. We report the isolation and genetic characterization of Lassa virus from an area previously unknown for Lassa fever.

        Cite This Article
    EID Safronetz D, Lopez JE, Sogoba N, Traore’ SF, Raffel SJ, Fischer ER, et al. Detection of Lassa Virus, Mali. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1123-1126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100146
    AMA Safronetz D, Lopez JE, Sogoba N, et al. Detection of Lassa Virus, Mali. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1123-1126. doi:10.3201/eid1607.100146.
    APA Safronetz, D., Lopez, J. E., Sogoba, N., Traore’, S. F., Raffel, S. J., Fischer, E. R....Feldmann, H. (2010). Detection of Lassa Virus, Mali. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1123-1126. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100146.
  • Septicemia Caused by Tick-borne Bacterial Pathogen Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis PDF Version [PDF - 270 KB - 3 pages]
    J. S. Fehr et al.
        View Abstract

    We have repeatedly detected Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, a bacterium first described in Rattus norvegicus rats and Ixodes ovatus ticks in Japan in 2004 in the blood of a 61-year-old man with signs of septicemia by 16S rRNA and groEL gene PCR. After 6 weeks of therapy with doxycycline and rifampin, the patient recovered.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fehr JS, Bloemberg GV, Ritter C, Hombach M, Lüscher TF, Weber R, et al. Septicemia Caused by Tick-borne Bacterial Pathogen Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1127-1129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091907
    AMA Fehr JS, Bloemberg GV, Ritter C, et al. Septicemia Caused by Tick-borne Bacterial Pathogen Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1127-1129. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091907.
    APA Fehr, J. S., Bloemberg, G. V., Ritter, C., Hombach, M., Lüscher, T. F., Weber, R....Keller, P. M. (2010). Septicemia Caused by Tick-borne Bacterial Pathogen Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1127-1129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091907.
  • Evolution of Seventh Cholera Pandemic and Origin of 1991 Epidemic, Latin America PDF Version [PDF - 165 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Lam et al.
        View Abstract

    Thirty single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used to track the spread of the seventh pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae. Isolates from the 1991 epidemic in Latin America shared a profile with 1970s isolates from Africa, suggesting a possible origin in Africa. Data also showed that the observed genotypes spread easily and widely.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lam C, Octavia S, Reeves P, Wang L, Lan R. Evolution of Seventh Cholera Pandemic and Origin of 1991 Epidemic, Latin America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1130-1132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100131
    AMA Lam C, Octavia S, Reeves P, et al. Evolution of Seventh Cholera Pandemic and Origin of 1991 Epidemic, Latin America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1130-1132. doi:10.3201/eid1607.100131.
    APA Lam, C., Octavia, S., Reeves, P., Wang, L., & Lan, R. (2010). Evolution of Seventh Cholera Pandemic and Origin of 1991 Epidemic, Latin America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1130-1132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100131.
  • Vaccine-associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis in Immunodeficient Children, Iran, 1995–2008 PDF Version [PDF - 152 KB - 4 pages]
    S. Shahmahmoodi et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the prevalence of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in immunodeficient infants, we reviewed all documented cases caused by immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses in Iran from 1995 through 2008. Changing to an inactivated polio vaccine vaccination schedule and introduction of screening of neonates for immunodeficiencies could reduce the risk for VAPP infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Shahmahmoodi S, Mamishi S, Aghamohammadi A, Aghazadeh N, Tabatabaie H, Gooya M, et al. Vaccine-associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis in Immunodeficient Children, Iran, 1995–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1133-1136. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091606
    AMA Shahmahmoodi S, Mamishi S, Aghamohammadi A, et al. Vaccine-associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis in Immunodeficient Children, Iran, 1995–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1133-1136. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091606.
    APA Shahmahmoodi, S., Mamishi, S., Aghamohammadi, A., Aghazadeh, N., Tabatabaie, H., Gooya, M....Parvaneh, N. (2010). Vaccine-associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis in Immunodeficient Children, Iran, 1995–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1133-1136. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091606.
  • Dogs as Sentinels for Human Infection with Japanese Encephalitis Virus PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
    H. Shimoda et al.
        View Abstract

    Because serosurveys of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) among wild animals and pigs may not accurately reflect risk for humans in urban/residential areas, we examined seroprevalence among dogs and cats. We found that JEV-infected mosquitoes have spread throughout Japan and that dogs, but not cats, might be good sentinels for monitoring JEV infection in urban/residential areas.

        Cite This Article
    EID Shimoda H, Ohno Y, Mochizuki M, Iwata H, Okuda M, Maeda K, et al. Dogs as Sentinels for Human Infection with Japanese Encephalitis Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1137-1139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091757
    AMA Shimoda H, Ohno Y, Mochizuki M, et al. Dogs as Sentinels for Human Infection with Japanese Encephalitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1137-1139. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091757.
    APA Shimoda, H., Ohno, Y., Mochizuki, M., Iwata, H., Okuda, M., & Maeda, K. (2010). Dogs as Sentinels for Human Infection with Japanese Encephalitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1137-1139. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091757.
  • Rickettsia felis–associated Uneruptive Fever, Senegal PDF Version [PDF - 172 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Socolovschi et al.
        View Abstract

    During November 2008–July 2009, we investigated the origin of unknown fever in Senegalese patients with a negative malaria test result, focusing on potential rickettsial infection. Using molecular tools, we found evidence for Rickettsia felis–associated illness in the initial days of infection in febrile Senegalese patients without malaria.

        Cite This Article
    EID Socolovschi C, Mediannikov O, Sokhna C, Tall A, Diatta G, Bassene H, et al. Rickettsia felis–associated Uneruptive Fever, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1140-1142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100070
    AMA Socolovschi C, Mediannikov O, Sokhna C, et al. Rickettsia felis–associated Uneruptive Fever, Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1140-1142. doi:10.3201/eid1607.100070.
    APA Socolovschi, C., Mediannikov, O., Sokhna, C., Tall, A., Diatta, G., Bassene, H....Raoult, D. (2010). Rickettsia felis–associated Uneruptive Fever, Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1140-1142. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100070.
  • Novel Human Parvovirus 4 Genotype 3 in Infants, Ghana PDF Version [PDF - 273 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Panning et al.
        View Abstract

    Human parvovirus 4 has been considered to be transmitted only parenterally. However, after novel genotype 3 of parvovirus 4 was found in 2 patients with no parenteral risks, we tested infants in Ghana. A viremia rate of 8.6% over 2 years indicates that this infection is common in children in Africa.

        Cite This Article
    EID Panning M, Kobbe R, Vollbach S, Drexler J, Adjei S, Adjei O, et al. Novel Human Parvovirus 4 Genotype 3 in Infants, Ghana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1143-1146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100025
    AMA Panning M, Kobbe R, Vollbach S, et al. Novel Human Parvovirus 4 Genotype 3 in Infants, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1143-1146. doi:10.3201/eid1607.100025.
    APA Panning, M., Kobbe, R., Vollbach, S., Drexler, J., Adjei, S., Adjei, O....Eis-Hübinger, A. M. (2010). Novel Human Parvovirus 4 Genotype 3 in Infants, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1143-1146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100025.
  • Geographic Differences in Genetic Locus Linkages for Borrelia burgdorferi PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 4 pages]
    B. Travinsky et al.
        View Abstract

    Borrelia burdorferi genotype in the northeastern United States is associated with Lyme borreliosis severity. Analysis of DNA sequences of the outer surface protein C gene and rrs-rrlA intergenic spacer from extracts of Ixodes spp. ticks in 3 US regions showed linkage disequilibrium between the 2 loci within a region but not consistently between regions.

        Cite This Article
    EID Travinsky B, Bunikis J, Barbour AG. Geographic Differences in Genetic Locus Linkages for Borrelia burgdorferi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1147-1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091452
    AMA Travinsky B, Bunikis J, Barbour AG. Geographic Differences in Genetic Locus Linkages for Borrelia burgdorferi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1147-1150. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091452.
    APA Travinsky, B., Bunikis, J., & Barbour, A. G. (2010). Geographic Differences in Genetic Locus Linkages for Borrelia burgdorferi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1147-1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091452.
  • Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues PDF Version [PDF - 560 KB - 4 pages]
    Y. Iwamaru et al.
        View Abstract

    We recently reported the intraspecies transmission of L-type atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). To clarify the peripheral pathogenesis of L-type BSE, we studied prion distribution in nerve and lymphoid tissues obtained from experimentally challenged cattle. As with classical BSE prions, L-type BSE prions accumulated in central and peripheral nerve tissues.

        Cite This Article
    EID Iwamaru Y, Imamura M, Matsuura Y, Masujin K, Shimizu Y, Shu Y, et al. Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1151-1154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091882
    AMA Iwamaru Y, Imamura M, Matsuura Y, et al. Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1151-1154. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091882.
    APA Iwamaru, Y., Imamura, M., Matsuura, Y., Masujin, K., Shimizu, Y., Shu, Y....Yokoyama, T. (2010). Accumulation of L-type Bovine Prions in Peripheral Nerve Tissues. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1151-1154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091882.
  • Cryptococcus gattii Genotype VGIIa Infection in Man, Japan, 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 212 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Okamoto et al.
        View Abstract

    We report a patient in Japan infected with Cryptococcus gattii genotype VGIIa who had no recent history of travel to disease-endemic areas. This strain was identical to the Vancouver Island outbreak strain R265. Our results suggest that this virulent strain has spread to regions outside North America.

        Cite This Article
    EID Okamoto K, Hatakeyama S, Itoyama S, Nukui Y, Yoshino Y, Kitazawa T, et al. Cryptococcus gattii Genotype VGIIa Infection in Man, Japan, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1155-1157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100106
    AMA Okamoto K, Hatakeyama S, Itoyama S, et al. Cryptococcus gattii Genotype VGIIa Infection in Man, Japan, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1155-1157. doi:10.3201/eid1607.100106.
    APA Okamoto, K., Hatakeyama, S., Itoyama, S., Nukui, Y., Yoshino, Y., Kitazawa, T....Koike, K. (2010). Cryptococcus gattii Genotype VGIIa Infection in Man, Japan, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1155-1157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100106.
  • Saffold Cardioviruses of 3 Lineages in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections, Beijing, China PDF Version [PDF - 388 KB - 4 pages]
    L. Ren et al.
        View Abstract

    To clarify the potential for respiratory transmission of Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) and characterize the pathogen, we analyzed respiratory specimens from 1,558 pediatric patients in Beijing. We detected SAFV in 7 (0.5%) patients and identified lineages 1–3. However, because 3 patients had co-infections, we could not definitively say SAFV caused disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ren L, Gonzalez R, Xie Z, Xiao Y, Li Y, Liu C, et al. Saffold Cardioviruses of 3 Lineages in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections, Beijing, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1158-1161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091682
    AMA Ren L, Gonzalez R, Xie Z, et al. Saffold Cardioviruses of 3 Lineages in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections, Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1158-1161. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091682.
    APA Ren, L., Gonzalez, R., Xie, Z., Xiao, Y., Li, Y., Liu, C....Wang, J. (2010). Saffold Cardioviruses of 3 Lineages in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections, Beijing, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1158-1161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091682.
  • Novel Swine Influenza Virus Reassortants in Pigs, China PDF Version [PDF - 152 KB - 3 pages]
    Y. Bi et al.
        View Abstract

    During swine influenza virus surveillance in pigs in China during 2006–2009, we isolated subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 and found novel reassortment between contemporary swine and avian panzootic viruses. These reassortment events raise concern about generation of novel viruses in pigs, which could have pandemic potential.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bi Y, Fu G, Chen J, Peng J, Sun Y, Wang J, et al. Novel Swine Influenza Virus Reassortants in Pigs, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1162-1164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091881
    AMA Bi Y, Fu G, Chen J, et al. Novel Swine Influenza Virus Reassortants in Pigs, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1162-1164. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091881.
    APA Bi, Y., Fu, G., Chen, J., Peng, J., Sun, Y., Wang, J....Liu, J. (2010). Novel Swine Influenza Virus Reassortants in Pigs, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1162-1164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091881.
  • Long-term Shedding of Influenza A Virus in Stool of Immunocompromised Child PDF Version [PDF - 188 KB - 3 pages]
    B. A. Pinsky et al.
        View Abstract

    In immunocompromised patients, influenza infection may progress to prolonged viral shedding from the respiratory tract despite antiviral therapy. We describe chronic influenza A virus infection in an immunocompromised child who had prolonged shedding of culturable influenza virus in stool.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pinsky BA, Mix S, Rowe J, Ikemoto S, Baron EJ. Long-term Shedding of Influenza A Virus in Stool of Immunocompromised Child. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1165-1167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091248
    AMA Pinsky BA, Mix S, Rowe J, et al. Long-term Shedding of Influenza A Virus in Stool of Immunocompromised Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1165-1167. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091248.
    APA Pinsky, B. A., Mix, S., Rowe, J., Ikemoto, S., & Baron, E. J. (2010). Long-term Shedding of Influenza A Virus in Stool of Immunocompromised Child. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1165-1167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091248.

Letters

  • ACC-1 β-Lactamase–producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, India PDF Version [PDF - 118 KB - 2 pages]
    B. N. Gokul et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Gokul BN, Menezes GA, Harish BN. ACC-1 β-Lactamase–producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1170-1171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091643
    AMA Gokul BN, Menezes GA, Harish BN. ACC-1 β-Lactamase–producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1170-1171. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091643.
    APA Gokul, B. N., Menezes, G. A., & Harish, B. N. (2010). ACC-1 β-Lactamase–producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1170-1171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091643.
  • Endocarditis Caused by Actinobaculum schaalii, Austria PDF Version [PDF - 129 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Hoenigl et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Hoenigl M, Leitner E, Valentin T, Zarfel G, Salzer H, Krause R, et al. Endocarditis Caused by Actinobaculum schaalii, Austria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1171-1173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100349
    AMA Hoenigl M, Leitner E, Valentin T, et al. Endocarditis Caused by Actinobaculum schaalii, Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1171-1173. doi:10.3201/eid1607.100349.
    APA Hoenigl, M., Leitner, E., Valentin, T., Zarfel, G., Salzer, H., Krause, R....Grisold, A. J. (2010). Endocarditis Caused by Actinobaculum schaalii, Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1171-1173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100349.
  • Mycobacterium chelonae Wound Infection after Liposuction PDF Version [PDF - 136 KB - 3 pages]
    M. J. Kim and L. Mascola
            Cite This Article
    EID Kim MJ, Mascola L. Mycobacterium chelonae Wound Infection after Liposuction. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1173-1175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.090156
    AMA Kim MJ, Mascola L. Mycobacterium chelonae Wound Infection after Liposuction. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1173-1175. doi:10.3201/eid1607.090156.
    APA Kim, M. J., & Mascola, L. (2010). Mycobacterium chelonae Wound Infection after Liposuction. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1173-1175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.090156.
  • Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and HIV PDF Version [PDF - 130 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Mora et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Mora M, Rodriguez-Castellano E, Pano-Pardo JR, González-García J, Navarro C, Figueira JC, et al. Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and HIV. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1175-1176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091339
    AMA Mora M, Rodriguez-Castellano E, Pano-Pardo JR, et al. Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and HIV. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1175-1176. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091339.
    APA Mora, M., Rodriguez-Castellano, E., Pano-Pardo, J. R., González-García, J., Navarro, C., Figueira, J. C....Arribas, J. R. (2010). Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and HIV. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1175-1176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091339.
  • Roseomonas sp. Isolated from Ticks, China PDF Version [PDF - 150 KB - 2 pages]
    W. Cao et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Cao W, Zhang F, Qiu E, Yang J, Xin Z, Wu X, et al. Roseomonas sp. Isolated from Ticks, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1177-1178. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.090166
    AMA Cao W, Zhang F, Qiu E, et al. Roseomonas sp. Isolated from Ticks, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1177-1178. doi:10.3201/eid1607.090166.
    APA Cao, W., Zhang, F., Qiu, E., Yang, J., Xin, Z., Wu, X....Liu, W. (2010). Roseomonas sp. Isolated from Ticks, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1177-1178. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.090166.
  • Misindentification of Mycobacterium kumamotonense as M. tuberculosis PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Rodríguez-Aranda et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Rodríguez-Aranda A, Jiménez MS, Yubero J, Chaves F, Rubio-García R, Palenque E, et al. Misindentification of Mycobacterium kumamotonense as M. tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1178-1180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091913
    AMA Rodríguez-Aranda A, Jiménez MS, Yubero J, et al. Misindentification of Mycobacterium kumamotonense as M. tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1178-1180. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091913.
    APA Rodríguez-Aranda, A., Jiménez, M. S., Yubero, J., Chaves, F., Rubio-García, R., Palenque, E....Menéndez, M. C. (2010). Misindentification of Mycobacterium kumamotonense as M. tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1178-1180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091913.
  • Mycobacterium conceptionense Infection after Breast Implant Surgery, France PDF Version [PDF - 89 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Thibeaut et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Thibeaut S, Levy P, Pelletier M, Drancourt M. Mycobacterium conceptionense Infection after Breast Implant Surgery, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1180-1181. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.090771
    AMA Thibeaut S, Levy P, Pelletier M, et al. Mycobacterium conceptionense Infection after Breast Implant Surgery, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1180-1181. doi:10.3201/eid1607.090771.
    APA Thibeaut, S., Levy, P., Pelletier, M., & Drancourt, M. (2010). Mycobacterium conceptionense Infection after Breast Implant Surgery, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1180-1181. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.090771.
  • Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Severity of Illness in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Taiwan PDF Version [PDF - 110 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Kao et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kao T, Wu U, Chen Y. Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Severity of Illness in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1181-1183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100105
    AMA Kao T, Wu U, Chen Y. Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Severity of Illness in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1181-1183. doi:10.3201/eid1607.100105.
    APA Kao, T., Wu, U., & Chen, Y. (2010). Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Severity of Illness in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1181-1183. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100105.
  • Human Brucella canis Infections Diagnosed by Blood Culture PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Nomura et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Nomura A, Imaoka K, Imanishi H, Shimizu H, Nagura F, Maeda K, et al. Human Brucella canis Infections Diagnosed by Blood Culture. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1183-1185. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.090209
    AMA Nomura A, Imaoka K, Imanishi H, et al. Human Brucella canis Infections Diagnosed by Blood Culture. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1183-1185. doi:10.3201/eid1607.090209.
    APA Nomura, A., Imaoka, K., Imanishi, H., Shimizu, H., Nagura, F., Maeda, K....Stein, G. H. (2010). Human Brucella canis Infections Diagnosed by Blood Culture. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1183-1185. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.090209.
  • Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Patient with Impaired Immune System PDF Version [PDF - 92 KB - 2 pages]
    G. A. Hill-Cawthorne et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Hill-Cawthorne GA, Schelenz S, Lawes M, Dervisevic S. Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Patient with Impaired Immune System. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1185-1186. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091579
    AMA Hill-Cawthorne GA, Schelenz S, Lawes M, et al. Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Patient with Impaired Immune System. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1185-1186. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091579.
    APA Hill-Cawthorne, G. A., Schelenz, S., Lawes, M., & Dervisevic, S. (2010). Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Patient with Impaired Immune System. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1185-1186. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091579.
  • Sapovirus in Adults in Rehabilitation Center, Upper Austria PDF Version [PDF - 109 KB - 2 pages]
    C. Mikula et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Mikula C, Springer B, Reichart S, Bierbacher K, Lichtenschopf A, Hoehne M, et al. Sapovirus in Adults in Rehabilitation Center, Upper Austria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1186-1187. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091789
    AMA Mikula C, Springer B, Reichart S, et al. Sapovirus in Adults in Rehabilitation Center, Upper Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1186-1187. doi:10.3201/eid1607.091789.
    APA Mikula, C., Springer, B., Reichart, S., Bierbacher, K., Lichtenschopf, A., & Hoehne, M. (2010). Sapovirus in Adults in Rehabilitation Center, Upper Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1186-1187. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.091789.

Books and Media

  • Inside the Outbreaks: The Elite Medical Detectives of the Epidemic Intelligence Service PDF Version [PDF - 143 KB - 1 page]
    S. C. Shafir
            Cite This Article
    EID Shafir SC. Inside the Outbreaks: The Elite Medical Detectives of the Epidemic Intelligence Service. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100582
    AMA Shafir SC. Inside the Outbreaks: The Elite Medical Detectives of the Epidemic Intelligence Service. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1188. doi:10.3201/eid1607.100582.
    APA Shafir, S. C. (2010). Inside the Outbreaks: The Elite Medical Detectives of the Epidemic Intelligence Service. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1188. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.100582.

About the Cover

  • There Is Always Something New Out of Africa PDF Version [PDF - 269 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. There Is Always Something New Out of Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(7):1189-1190. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.AC1607
    AMA Potter P. There Is Always Something New Out of Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(7):1189-1190. doi:10.3201/eid1607.AC1607.
    APA Potter, P. (2010). There Is Always Something New Out of Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(7), 1189-1190. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1607.AC1607.

Conference Summaries

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