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Volume 17, Number 10—October 2011

Research

Bacterial Causes of Empyema in Children, Australia, 2007–2009

Roxanne E. Strachan, Anita Cornelius, Gwendolyn L. Gilbert, Tanya Gulliver, Andrew Martin, Tim McDonald, Gillian M. Nixon, Rob Roseby, Sarath Ranganathan, Hiran Selvadurai, Greg Smith, Manuel Soto-Martinez, Sadasivam Suresh, Laurel Teoh, Kiran Thapa, Claire E. Wainwright, Adam JafféComments to Author , and on behalf of the Australian Research Network in Empyema

Author affiliations: Sydney Children’s Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia (R.E. Strachan, A. Jaffé); Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia (A. Cornelius); Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia (G.L. Gilbert, K. Thapa); John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia (T. Gulliver); Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, Western Australia, Australia (A. Martin); The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia (T. McDonald, L. Teoh); Monash Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (G.M. Nixon); Alice Springs Hospital, Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia (R. Roseby); Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne (S. Ranganathan, M. Soto-Martinez); Children’s Hospital at Westmead (H. Selvadurai); Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia (G. Smith); Mater Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (S. Suresh); Royal Children’s Hospital, Brisbane (C.E. Wainwright)

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Table 2

Bacteria isolated by culture of blood and pleural fluid samples and by PCR of pleural fluid samples from children with empyema, Australia, 2007–2009*

Organism No. (%) positive samples
Blood culture,
n = 152 Pleural fluid
Culture,
n = 160 PCR,
n = 145
Streptococcus pneumoniae 19 (12.5) 12 (7.5) 74 (51)
S. pyogenes 3 (2.0) 14 (8.8) NA
S. milleri NA 4 (2.5) NA
MSSA 1 (0.7) 11 (6.8) 6 (4.1)
MRSA 1 (0.7) 6 (3.8) 7 (4.8)
Coagulase-negative staphylococci 4 (2.6) 2 (1.3) NA
Haemophilus influenzae 1 (0.7) NA 4 (2.8)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis NA 1 (0.6 NA
Pseudomonas aeruginosa NA 1 (0.6) NA
Mycoplasma pneumoniae NA NA 1 (0.7)
Chlamydia pneumoniae NA NA 1 (0.7)
Other† 4 (2.6) 4 (2.5) NA

*NA, not applicable; MSSA, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA, methicillin-resistant S.s aureus.
†Blood cultures: 1 isolate each of Streptococcus sanguinis; Staphylococcus hominis (from a specimen in which S. aureus was also isolated); Neisseria meningitidis; and Actinomyces naeslundii. Pleural fluid: 1 isolate each of Streptococcus oralis; Staphylococcus cohni; Eikenella corrodens; and Bacteroides fragilis (the last 2 from the same specimen, from which S. milleri was also isolated). Both MRSA and MSSA were cultured from 1 pleural fluid specimen.

*NA, not applicable; MSSA, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA, methicillin-resistant S.s aureus.
†Blood cultures: 1 isolate each of Streptococcus sanguinis; Staphylococcus hominis (from a specimen in which S. aureus was also isolated); Neisseria meningitidis; and Actinomyces naeslundii. Pleural fluid: 1 isolate each of Streptococcus oralis; Staphylococcus cohni; Eikenella corrodens; and Bacteroides fragilis (the last 2 from the same specimen, from which S. milleri was also isolated). Both MRSA and MSSA were cultured from 1 pleural fluid specimen.

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