Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Volume 17, Number 11—November 2011
THEME ISSUE
CHOLERA IN HAITI

Dispatch

Epidemic Cholera in a Crowded Urban Environment, Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Stacie E. DunkleComments to Author , Adamma Mba-Jonas, Anagha Loharikar, Bernadette Fouché, Mireille Peck, Tracy Ayers, W. Roodly Archer, Valery M. Beau De Rochars, Thomas Bender, Daphne B. Moffett, Jordan W. Tappero, George Dahourou, Thierry Roels, and Robert Quick
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (S.E. Dunkle, A. Mba-Jonas, A. Loharikar, T. Ayers, W.R. Archer, V.M. Beau De Rochars, T. Bender, D.B. Moffett, J.W. Tappero, G. Dahourou, T.H. Roels, R. Quick); Ministry of Public Health and Population, Port-au-Prince, Haiti (B. Fouché); Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections, Port-au-Prince (M. Peck)

Main Article

Table 1

Characteristics of cholera case-patients and controls, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, December 2010*

Variable No. (%) case-patients, n = 53 No. (%) controls, n = 106 mOR (95% CI)
Socioeconomic
Completed primary school† 5 (29)‡ 13 (36)‡ 0.2 (0.0–1.7)
Literate† 37 (84)‡ 72 (84)‡ 1.0 (0.3–3.9)
French speaking† 16 (36)‡ 49 (57)‡ 0.3 (0.1–0.8)
Has electricity 29 (55) 71 (67)‡ 0.5 (0.2–1.2)
Owns a radio 37 (70) 77 (73) 0.8 (0.3–2.2)
Owns a television 26 (50)‡ 58 (55)‡ 0.8 (0.4–1.8)
Owns a car/motorcycle 3 (6)‡ 12 (12)‡ 0.4 (0.1–1.9)
IDP camp (self-reported) 15 (28) 24 (23) 2.1 (0.5–8.7)
IDP camp (observed) 10 (24)‡ 19 (24)‡ 0.7 (0.1–7.3)
Tarp roof 11 (21) 19 (18) 1.6 (0.3–8.8)
Unemployed§
5 (13)‡
14 (18)‡
0.7 (0.2–2.4)
Water sources
Purchased bags (sachets) 9 (17) 9 (9) 2.6 (0.7–10.2)
Purchased bottles/filter 12 (23) 25 (24) 0.9 (0.4–2.3)
Piped (house, yard, public tap) 25 (47) 58 (55) 0.6 (0.2–1.6)
Tanker 7 (13) 11 (10) 1.4 (0.4–5.0)
Bladder
0
8 (8)
NA (0.0–0.9)
Water treatment and handwashing
Boiling water or using a chlorine product <3 d before illness 37 (70) 86 (81) 0.5 (0.2–1.2)
Boiling water or using a chlorine product before November 1, 2010
37 (70)
90 (85)‡
0.3 (0.1–0.9)
Proper handwashing
8 (15)
31 (29)
0.2 (0.0–0.7)
Sanitation: access to toilet/latrine
45 (85)‡
97 (92)‡
0.5 (0.1–1.7)
Foods
Food or drink from a street vendor 23 (47)‡ 52 (55)‡ 0.7 (0.3–1.7)
Cold leftover food 23 (44)‡ 59 (56) 0.6 (0.2–1.3)
Cold rice 30 (58)‡ 59 (56)‡ 1.1 (0.5–2.5)
Raw food 3 (6)‡ 5 (5)‡ 1.2 (0.2–6.2)
Seafood 12 (23) 37 (35) 0.5 (0.2–1.2)
Food diversity (>23 items) 15 (28) 59 (56) 0.3 (0.1–0.6)

*mOR, matched odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; IDP, internally displaced person.
†Respondents >15 y of age.
‡Denominator does not include all respondents.
§Respondents >17 y of age.

*mOR, matched odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; IDP, internally displaced person.
†Respondents >15 y of age.
‡Denominator does not include all respondents.
§Respondents >17 y of age.

Main Article

Top of Page

USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO