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Volume 17, Number 11—November 2011
THEME ISSUE
CHOLERA IN HAITI

Dispatch

Risk Factors Early in the 2010 Cholera Epidemic, Haiti

Katherine A. O’ConnorComments to Author , Emily Cartwright, Anagha Loharikar, Janell Routh, Joanna Gaines, Marie-Délivrance Bernadette Fouché, Reginald Jean-Louis, Tracy Ayers, Dawn Johnson, Jordan W. Tappero, Thierry H. Roels, W. Roodly Archer, Georges A. Dahourou, Eric Mintz, Robert Quick, and Barbara E. Mahon
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (K.A. O’Connor, E. Cartwright, A. Loharikar, J. Routh, J. Gaines, T. Ayers, J.W. Tappero, T.H. Roels, W.R. Archer, E. Mintz, R. Quick, B.E. Mahon); Ministry of Public Health and Population, Port-au-Prince, Haiti (M.-D.B. Fouché); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Port-au-Prince (R. Jean-Louis, G.A. Dahourou); Hôpital Albert Schweitzer, Deschapelles, Haiti (D. Johnson)

Main Article

Table

Exposures of case-patients with cholera and matched controls, Artibonite Department, Haiti, October–November 2010*

Variable
No. (%) case-patients exposed, n = 49
No. (%) controls exposed, n = 98
mOR (95% CI)
Participant completed primary school† 7 (23) 18 (31) 1.0 (0.2–3.8)
Drinking water source
Improved water source 15 (31) 23 (23) 3.5 (0.6–40.8)
Well 30 (61) 59 (60) 0.3 (0.1–2.5)
Water storage
Lacked safe water storage 33 (79)‡ 69 (74)‡ 1.3 (0.5–4.0)
Bucket (unsafe storage) 31 (72)‡ 67 (70)‡ 1.1 (0.4–2.8)
Plastic bottle (safe storage) 7 (16)‡ 19 (20)‡ 0.6 (0.2–2.0)
Water treatment
Treating drinking water before the outbreak 25 (52)‡ 48 (51)‡ 0.9 (0.4– 2.3)
Treating drinking water 3 d before illness onset (during outbreak) 29 (59) 82 (85) 0.2 (0.1–0.7)
Water treatment product in home 31 (69)‡ 73 (75) 0.8 (0.3–2.4)
Drinking water test
Residual chlorine presence in home drinking water >0.1 mg/L 13 (30)‡ 37 (41)‡ 0.4 (0.1–1.3)
Residual chlorine presence in home drinking water >0.5 mg/L 8 (16)‡ 18 (18)‡ 0.4 (0.1–1.8)
Contact with river water 17 (35) 26 (27) 1.1 (0.4–3.1)
Sanitation and hygiene
Open defecation 28 (61) 40 (48)‡ 2.2 (0.7–7.8)
Handwashing with soap and lather 29 (59) 20 (41) 0.6 (0.3–1.5)
Household characteristics: electricity 8 (16) 29 (30) 0.6 (0.1–2.3)
Food exposure: sugar cane juice 4 (9)‡ 1 (1)‡ 9.1§ (1.0–∞)

*Exposures adjusted by sex and mud floor in home. Median age of case-patients was 23 y (range 6–63 y); median age of controls was 23 y (range 5–75 y). mOR, matched odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
†Among those >15 y of age.
‡Denominators may be lower than the total number of participants because of missing data.
§Median unbiased estimate.

*Exposures adjusted by sex and mud floor in home. Median age of case-patients was 23 y (range 6–63 y); median age of controls was 23 y (range 5–75 y). mOR, matched odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
†Among those >15 y of age.
‡Denominators may be lower than the total number of participants because of missing data.
§Median unbiased estimate.

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