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Volume 17, Number 6—June 2011

Dispatch

Human Infection with Avian Influenza Virus, Pakistan, 2007

Mukhtiar Zaman, Saadia Ashraf, Nancy A. Dreyer, and Stephen TooveyComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan (M. Zaman, S. Ashraf); Outcome Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (N.A. Dreyer); University College and Royal Free Medical School, London, UK (S. Toovey)

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Table 1

Case classification definitions used to diagnose influenza (H5N1) infection in humans, Pakistan, 2007*

Classification Definition
Laboratory confirmed
Laboratory confirmation of influenza (H5N1) virus at local/regional or World Health Organization confirmatory laboratory
Likely
Definition 1 Epidemiologically linked by time, place, and exposure to a likely or confirmed human or avian influenza (H5N1) case AND
Equivocal test OR positive laboratory confirmation of an influenza A virus infection but insufficient laboratory evidence for influenza (H5N1) virus infection AND
Clinical signs or symptoms consistent with disease (regardless of severity): fever or flu-like
Definition 2 Epidemiologically linked by time, place, and exposure to a likely or confirmed influenza (H5N1) case-patient AND
Death due to unexplained acute respiratory illness AND

Negative test/test not performed
Possible Epidemiologically linked by time, place and exposure to a likely or confirmed human or avian influenza (H5N1) case AND
Test not performed/negative test AND

Clinical signs and symptoms consistent with disease (regardless of severity): fever or flu-like
Noncase Confirmed positive for non-H5N1 influenza A virus subtype OR
Patient condition determined to have etiology other than avian influenza

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