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Volume 17, Number 6—June 2011

Dispatch

Worldwide Distribution of Major Clones of Listeria monocytogenes

Viviane Chenal-Francisque1, Jodie Lopez1, Thomas Cantinelli, Valerie Caro, Coralie Tran, Alexandre Leclercq, Marc Lecuit2, and Sylvain Brisse2Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (V. Chenal-Francisque, J. Lopez, T. Cantinelli, V. Caro, C. Tran, A. Leclercq, M. Lecuit, S. Brisse); World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Listeria, Paris (V. Chenal-Francisque, A. Leclercq, M. Lecuit); Inserm Avenir U604, Paris (M. Lecuit); Université Paris Descartes, Paris (M. Lecuit)

Main Article

Table A1

Sources and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes isolates analyzed

Key World region Country Year Source Lineage CC* ST† Serotype‡
LM13415 Africa Algeria 1985 Human 1 CC1 1 4b
LM13417 Africa Algeria 1987 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM10976 Africa Algeria 1988 Animal 1 CC2 2 4b
LM76305 Africa Algeria 1998 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM05-00105 Africa Algeria Unknown Human 1 CC2 272 4b
LM8818 Africa Algeria 1988 Animal 2 CC21 21 1/2a
LM13419 Africa Algeria 1987 Human 1 CC3 273 1/2b
LM68629 Africa Algeria 1991 Human 2 CC8 8 1/2a
LM68625
Africa
Algeria
1992
Human
2
CC8
8
1/2a
LM86423
Africa
Madagascar
Unknown
Food
2
CC121
121
1/2a
LM77185 Africa Morocco Unknown Food 1 CC1 1 4b
LM86525 Africa Morocco Unknown Food 2 CC101 101 1/2a
LM07-00231 Africa Morocco Unknown Food 1 CC2 2 4b
LM20800 Africa Morocco Unknown Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM75327 Africa Morocco Unknown Human 1 CC2 277 4b
LM86505 Africa Morocco Unknown Food 1 CC3 287 1/2b
LM75325 Africa Morocco Unknown Human 1 CC3 3 1/2b
LM75328 Africa Morocco Unknown Human 1 CC3 3 1/2b
LM18327 Africa Morocco 1990 Human 1 CC3 41 1/2b
LM77479 Africa Morocco Unknown Vegetal 1 CC3 68 1/2b
LM77195 Africa Morocco Unknown Food 1 CC59 282 1/2b
LM85273 Africa Morocco 2000 Environment 1 CC59 285 1/2b
LM86481 Africa Morocco Unknown Food 1 CC59 286 1/2b
LM07-00586
Africa
Morocco
Unknown
Food
1
CC59
59
1/2b
LM89984 Africa Senegal Unknown Unknown 1 CC2 145 4b
LM09-00263 Africa Senegal 2007 Food 1 CC59 59 1/2b
LM09-00264
Africa
Senegal
2009
Food
1
CC59
59
1/2b
LM09-00277 Africa Tunisia 2007 Food 2 CC101 101 1/2a
LM58204 Africa Tunisia 1994 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM09-00290 Africa Tunisia 2005 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM09-00291 Africa Tunisia 2007 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM20490 Africa Tunisia Unknown Environment 1 CC2 2 4b
LM71962 Africa Tunisia Unknown Food 1 CC2 276 4b
LM42224
Africa
Tunisia
1993
Human
2
CC9
9
1/2c
LM21416 Eastern Asia China 1991 Human 1 CC1 1 4b
LM12980 Eastern Asia China 1987 Unknown 1 CC1 243 4b
LM22261 Eastern Asia China 1992 Food 2 CC121 121 1/2a
LM21413 Eastern Asia China 1991 Human 2 CC155 155 1/2a
LM21436
Eastern Asia
China
Unknown
Food
1
CC2
2
4b
SLCC875
Eastern Asia
Russia
1948
Food
2

126
1/2a
LM12872 Europe Austria 1986 Human 2 CC14 91 1/2a (s)
LM8792 Europe Austria 1987 Food 2 CC18 18 1/2a (s)
LM83291 Europe Austria 2000 Human 1 CC195 195 1/2b (s)
LM8789 Europe Austria 1987 Food 2 CC199 199 1/2a (s)
LM8800 Europe Austria 1988 Food 2 CC199 199 1/2a (s)
LM8806 Europe Austria 1988 Food 2 CC199 199 1/2a (s)
LM8785 Europe Austria 1987 Food 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM8736 Europe Austria 1986 Food 1 CC3 3 1/2b (s)
LM8742 Europe Austria 1986 Food 2 CC9 9 1/2c (s)
LM8796
Europe
Austria
1988
Food
2
CC9
9
1/2c
LM11971 Europe Belgium 1987 Animal 2 177 1/2a
LM07-00578 Europe Belgium 1990 Food 2 222 1/2a
LM17434 Europe Belgium 1988 Food 1 CC1 10 4b (s)
LM07-00581 Europe Belgium 1990 Food 2 CC121 121 1/2a
LM17416 Europe Belgium 1988 Food 2 CC18 18 1/2a (s)
LM23000 Europe Belgium 1990 Food 2 CC199 230 1/2a (s)
LM17413 Europe Belgium 1988 Human 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM17559 Europe Belgium 1989 Human 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM17571 Europe Belgium 1989 Human 1 CC3 3 1/2b (s)
LM83769 Europe Belgium 1999 Human 1 CC4 4 4b (s)
LM11970 Europe Belgium 1986 Human 1 CC59 241 1/2b (s)
LM17431 Europe Belgium 1988 Food 1 CC59 59 1/2b (s)
SLCC2298
Europe
Bulgaria
1965
Animal
1
CC1
1
4b (s)
LM83919 Europe Croatia <2000 Animal 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM80112 Europe Croatia <2000 Animal 1 CC3 235 1/2b (s)
LM78358 Europe Croatia <1999 Animal 2 CC37 234 1/2a (s)
LM83916
Europe
Croatia
<2000
Animal
2
CC8
120
1/2a (s)
LM07-00288 Europe Czech Republic <2007 Unknown 2 CC14 14 1/2a
LM69539 Europe Czech Republic 1995 Environment 1 CC195 195 1/2b
LM05-01034 Europe Czech Republic <2005 Unknown 1 CC2 145 4b
LM69522 Europe Czech Republic 1995 Food 1 CC5 5 1/2b
LM05-01033
Europe
Czech Republic
<2005
Unknown
2
CC7
12
1/2a
LM82202 Europe Denmark 1999 Human 1 CC1 79 4b (s)
SLCC1531 Europe Denmark 1962 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
SLCC1686 Europe Denmark 1963 Human 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM10791 Europe Denmark 1988 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
SLCC1533 Europe Denmark 1962 Human 1 CC2 257 4b (s)
SLCC2399 Europe Denmark 1966 Animal 1 CC2 48 4b (s)
LM10378 Europe Denmark 1988 Food 1 CC59 59 1/2b
LM12832 Europe Denmark 1989 Human 2 CC7 7 1/2a
SLCC69 Europe Denmark 1937 Human 2 CC7 98 1/2a
LM14228
Europe
Denmark
1989
Food
2
CC9
9
1/2a
LM15178 Europe Finland 1989 Human 2 CC121 121 1/2a
LM15142 Europe Finland 1986 Human 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM8013 Europe Finland 1987 Food 1 CC3 3 1/2b
LM15208 Europe Finland 1988 Environment 1 CC3 3 1/2b
LM8017 Europe Finland 1974 Human 1 CC315 253 4b
LM8169 Europe Finland 1987 Animal 1 CC6 254 4b
LM15256 Europe Finland 1988 Animal 2 CC7 227 1/2a
LM8077 Europe Finland 1987 Food 2 CC7 7 1/2a
LM15183
Europe
Finland
1989
Human
2
CC9
9
1/2c
SLCC1612 Europe France 1963 Human 1 CC1 73 4b
LM23187 Europe France 1992 Food 1 CC2 2 4b
SLCC546 Europe France 1956 Human 1 CC3 117 1/2b
LM15262 Europe France 1990 Human 1 CC3 228 1/2b (s)
SLCC206 Europe France 1950 Food 1 CC315 102 4b
LM12519 Europe France 1989 Human 1 CC4 242 4b (s)
LM21131 Europe France 1992 Food 1 CC4 4 4b (s)
LM62444 Europe France 1995 Food 2 CC7 231 1/2a
LM12485 Europe France 1988 Food 2 CC9 9 1/2c
LM06-00139
Europe
France
2006
Environment
2
CC9
9
1/2c
LM71759 Europe Germany <1996 Unknown 1 CC1 1 4b (s)
LM65123 Europe Germany 1994 Human 1 CC1 1 4b
LM65127 Europe Germany 1995 Human 1 CC1 1 4b
SLCC39 Europe Germany 1953 Human 2 CC101 113 1/2a
SLCC1023 Europe Germany 1960 Animal 2 CC101 143 1/2a
LM82806 Europe Germany <2000 Food 2 CC121 121 1/2a (s)
SLCC2 Europe Germany 1953 Human 1 CC2 145 4b
LM74698 Europe Germany <1997 Unknown 1 CC2 2 4b
LM82901 Europe Germany <2000 Human 2 CC21 21 1/2a (s)
LM18662 Europe Germany 1990 Human 1 CC3 3 1/2b
LM82900 Europe Germany <2000 Animal 1 CC5 5 1/2b (s)
LM71758 Europe Germany 1996 Unknown 2 CC7 12 1/2a (s)
SLCC1 Europe Germany 1951 Human 2 CC7 23 1/2a
SLCC2864 Europe Germany 1968 Food 2 CC7 7 1/2a (s)
LM78008
Europe
Germany
<1999
Unknown
2
CC9
9
1/2c (s)
LM70960 Europe Greece <1996 Animal 1 191 1/2b (s)
LM93187 Europe Greece <2003 Human 1 CC1 1 4b (s)
LM70927 Europe Greece <1996 Animal 1 CC1 252 4b (s)
LM93191 Europe Greece <2003 Human 2 CC155 237 1/2a (s)
LM70940 Europe Greece <1996 Animal 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM70290 Europe Greece <1996 Human 1 CC4 251 4b (s)
LM67774 Europe Greece <1995 Environment 1 CC6 6 4b
LM67783 Europe Greece <1995 Food 1 CC6 6 4b
LM67781 Europe Greece <1995 Food 2 CC9 115 1/2c
LM70956
Europe
Greece
<1996
Animal
2
CC9
9
1/2c (s)
LM9414 Europe Italy 1988 Animal 1 191 1/2b
LM15852 Europe Italy 1990 Human 1 CC1 1 4b
LM7616 Europe Italy 1987 Human 1 CC1 252 4b
LM13394 Europe Italy 1989 Food 2 CC121 121 1/2a
LM41103 Europe Italy 1993 Food 2 CC18 18 1/2a
LM61388 Europe Italy 1994 Food 1 CC2 246 4b
LM86834 Europe Italy <2001 Food 1 CC3 3 1/2b (s)
LM68619 Europe Italy 1995 Human 2 CC8 120 1/2a
LM07-01172 Europe Italy 2003 Animal 2 CC9 9 1/2c
LM06-00810
Europe
Italy
2005
Environment
2
CC9
9
1/2c
SLCC1457 Europe The Netherlands 1962 Animal 1 CC1 1 4b (s)
LM07-01127 Europe The Netherlands <2007 Food 1 CC6 6 4b
LM07-01124
Europe
The Netherlands
<2007
Human
2
CC9
223
1/2c
SLCC2280
Europe
Poland
1965
Human
2
CC21
238
1/2a
LM08-00013 Europe Portugal 2000 Human 1 224 1/2b
LM08-00002 Europe Portugal 2003 Human 1 54 4b
LM70125 Europe Portugal <1996 Environment 1 CC1 1 4b (s)
LM84790 Europe Portugal <2000 Environment 1 CC1 255 4b (s)
LM08-01095 Europe Portugal <2005 Human 2 CC121 121 1/2a
LM70124 Europe Portugal <1996 Environment 2 CC121 121 1/2a (s)
LM08-00024 Europe Portugal 2004 Human 2 CC16 16 1/2a
LM76641 Europe Portugal 1998 Food 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM71637 Europe Portugal <1996 Food 1 CC288 233 1/2b (s)
LM70140 Europe Portugal <1996 Food 1 CC3 228 1/2b (s)
LM70139 Europe Portugal <1996 Food 1 CC3 3 1/2b (s)
LM08-00016 Europe Portugal 1998 Human 1 CC59 59 1/2b
LM71634 Europe Portugal <1996 Food 2 CC9 9 1/2c (s)
LM05-01099
Europe
Portugal
<2005
Human
2
CC9
9
1/2c
LM87422 Europe Spain 2000 Human 1 CC1 256 4b (s)
LM13478 Europe Spain <1989 Animal 1 CC2 2 4b
LM13479 Europe Spain <1989 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM13608 Europe Spain 1989 Food 1 CC2 2 4b
LM59597 Europe Spain 1991 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM38931 Europe Spain 1992 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM65719 Europe Spain 1995 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM9134
Europe
Spain
1988
Food
2
CC9
9
1/2c
LM68804 Europe Sweden 1973 Human 1 CC1 1 4b
LM68807 Europe Sweden 1974 Human 1 CC1 1 4b
LM68853 Europe Sweden 1995 Environment 1 CC1 1 4b
LM68828 Europe Sweden 1987 Human 1 CC1 248 4b
LM68833 Europe Sweden 1988 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM68834 Europe Sweden 1994 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM68802 Europe Sweden 1975 Human 1 CC2 247 4b
LM68856 Europe Sweden 1991 Human 1 CC3 3 1/2b
LM68846 Europe Sweden 1994 Environment 1 CC315 249 4b
LM68865
Europe
Sweden
Unknown
Food
1
CC315
250
4b
SLCC792 Europe Switzerland 1958 Human 1 240 4b (s)
SLCC2570 Europe Switzerland 1967 Animal 3 201 L
LM51770 Europe Switzerland 1994 Food 1 CC1 1 4b (s)
SLCC1849 Europe Switzerland 1964 Animal 1 CC1 258 4b
SLCC243 Europe Switzerland 1954 Animal 2 CC155 239 1/2a
LM60557 Europe Switzerland 1994 Animal 2 CC18 18 1/2a (s)
LM74493 Europe Switzerland 1997 Environment 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM51415 Europe Switzerland 1993 Human 1 CC2 245 4b (s)
SLCC796 Europe Switzerland 1959 Animal 1 CC2 259 4b (s)
LM16587
Europe
Switzerland
1990
Animal
1
CC59
59
1/2b (s)
LM14569 Europe Turkey 1989 Food 2 226 1/2a (s)
LM14571 Europe Turkey 1988 Food 2 226 1/2a (s)
LM14574 Europe Turkey 1988 Food 2 226 1/2a (s)
LM13903 Europe Turkey 1989 Food 1 CC3 225 1/2b (s)
LM13904
Europe
Turkey
<1989
Food
1
CC3
3
1/2b (s)
SLCC125 Europe United Kingdom 1954 Human 1 54 4b
LM10453 Europe United Kingdom <1988 Food 1 CC1 1 4b
LM42629 Europe United Kingdom 1993 Unknown 1 CC1 73 4b
SLCC1419 Europe United Kingdom 1962 Human 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
SLCC1616 Europe United Kingdom 1963 Human 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
SLCC2524 Europe United Kingdom 1966 Human 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM8720 Europe United Kingdom 1988 Human 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM24902 Europe United Kingdom 1992 Food 2 CC7 7 1/2a
SLCC21
Europe
United Kingdom
1935
Human
2
CC9
122
1/2c
LM19700 Middle East Iraq Unknown Food 1 CC2 145 4b
LM19695
Middle East
Iraq
Unknown
Food
1
CC3
66
1/2b
LM71350
Middle East
Iran
Unknown
Food
2
CC7
12
1/2a (s)
LM89979 Middle East Israel Unknown Human 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM89980 Middle East Israel Unknown Food 1 CC3 68 1/2b (s)
LM56346
Middle East
Israel
1993
Animal
2
CC7
7
1/2a
LM77966 Middle East Qatar Unknown Human 1 CC1 1 4b (s)
LM80419 Middle East Qatar Unknown Food 2 CC121 236 1/2a (s)
LM80415
Middle East
Qatar
Unknown
Food
1
CC2
2
4b (s)
SLCC665 North America Canada 1958 Human 1 CC1 1 4b
SLCC183 North America Canada 1954 Human 2 CC101 101 1/2a
SLCC907 North America Canada 1953 Food 2 CC14 160 1/2a
SLCC537 North America Canada Unknown Human 1 CC2 257 4b
SLCC357 North America Canada 1950 Human 1 CC2 290 4b
SLCC236 North America Canada 1954 Human 2 CC21 22 1/2a
SLCC100
North America
Canada
1951
Human
2
CC7
98
1/2a
LM88502 North America Mexico 1999 Vegetal 1 32 4b
LM88513 North America Mexico 1999 Environment 1 CC2 2 4b
LM88519 North America Mexico 2000 Vegetal 1 CC2 2 4b
LM88520 North America Mexico 2000 Environment 1 CC2 48 4b
LM88454 North America Mexico 1999 Environment 1 CC288 288 1/2b
LM88455 North America Mexico 1999 Vegetal 1 CC288 288 1/2b
LM88458 North America Mexico 1999 Environment 1 CC288 288 1/2b
LM88461 North America Mexico 1999 Environment 1 CC288 288 1/2b
LM88469 North America Mexico 1999 Vegetal 1 CC288 288 1/2b
LM88491 North America Mexico 2000 Vegetal 1 CC288 288 1/2b
LM88493 North America Mexico 2000 Environment 1 CC288 288 1/2b
LM88500 North America Mexico 2000 Environment 1 CC288 288 1/2b
LM88501
North America
Mexico
1999
Environment
1
CC6
6
4b
SLCC422 North America United States 1956 Food 3 294 L
SLCC63 North America United States 1933 Human 1 CC1 119 4b
SLCC65 North America United States 1933 Human 1 CC1 119 4b
SLCC83 North America United States 1937 Food 1 CC1 119 4b
SLCC299 North America United States 1955 Human 1 CC2 2 4b
SLCC527 North America United States 1957 Human 1 CC2 291 4b
SLCC459
North America
United States
Unknown
Unknown
1
CC59
292
1/2b
LM13007 Oceania Australia <1989 Unknown 1 CC2 2 4b
LM21475
Oceania
Australia
<1992
Environment
2
CC204
204
1/2a
LM19717 Oceania New Zealand 1991 Food 2 229 1/2a
LM11309 Oceania New Zealand 1987 Human 1 CC1 1 4b
LM18429 Oceania New Zealand 1991 Food 1 CC1 1 4b
LM70327 Oceania New Zealand 1995 Human 1 CC1 248 4b (s)
LM18427 Oceania New Zealand 1991 Human 2 CC155 155 1/2a
LM70320 Oceania New Zealand 1995 Human 1 CC2 2 4b (s)
LM18354 Oceania New Zealand 1989 Human 1 CC2 244 4b
LM13044 Oceania New Zealand 1981 Human 1 CC3 3 1/2b (s)
LM18357 Oceania New Zealand 1990 Human 1 CC3 3 1/2b
LM40964 Oceania New Zealand 1993 Human 1 CC59 59 1/2b
LM62719 Oceania New Zealand 1994 Human 2 CC8 232 1/2a
LM11308
Oceania
New Zealand
1988
Human
2
CC9
9
1/2c
LM66720 South and Central America Argentina 1995 Unknown 1 CC1 1 4b
LM77778 South and Central America Argentina 1998 Food 1 CC1 1 4b
LM77638 South and Central America Argentina 1997 Food 2 CC199 283 1/2a
LM69877 South and Central America Argentina Unknown Human 1 CC2 2 4b
LM80547 South and Central America Argentina 1999 Food 1 CC3 117 1/2b
LM75973 South and Central America Argentina 1997 Food 1 CC3 3 1/2b
LM77713 South and Central America Argentina 1998 Food 1 CC3 3 1/2b
LM89775 South and Central America Argentina 2001 Food 1 CC3 3 1/2b
LM80503 South and Central America Argentina 1999 Food 1 CC3 66 1/2b
LM78899 South and Central America Argentina 1998 Food 2 CC9 9 1/2c
LM80539 South and Central America Argentina 1999 Food 2 CC9 9 1/2c
LM89220
South and Central America
Argentina
2001
Food
2
CC9
9
1/2c
LM16678 South and Central America Brazil 1989 Human 1 218 4b
LM16713 South and Central America Brazil 1989 Food 3 293 L
LM71345 South and Central America Brazil Unknown Human 1 CC1 73 4b
LM71338 South and Central America Brazil Unknown Vegetal 2 CC121 275 1/2a
LM71346 South and Central America Brazil Unknown Human 1 CC195 195 1/2b (s)
LM16722 South and Central America Brazil 1990 Human 1 CC195 274 1/2b
LM16728
South and Central America
Brazil
Unknown
Vegetal
2
CC9
9
1/2c
LM77137 South and Central America Chile Unknown Food 1 279 4b
LM70662 South and Central America Chile Unknown Human 1 CC1 1 4b
LM90287 South and Central America Chile Unknown Food 1 CC1 1 4b
LM77135 South and Central America Chile Unknown Human 1 CC1 278 4b
LM77141 South and Central America Chile Unknown Food 1 CC3 280 1/2b
LM77152 South and Central America Chile Unknown Food 1 CC3 281 1/2b
LM77145 South and Central America Chile Unknown Food 1 CC5 5 1/2b
LM77157 South and Central America Chile Unknown Food 1 CC5 5 1/2b
LM90283 South and Central America Chile Unknown Food 1 CC5 5 1/2b
LM77123 South and Central America Chile Unknown Human 2 CC7 7 1/2a
LM90291 South and Central America Chile Unknown Food 2 CC8 289 1/2a
LM70681 South and Central America Chile Unknown Food 2 CC9 9 1/2c
LM77132 South and Central America Chile Unknown Human 2 CC9 9 1/2c
LM77150
South and Central America
Chile
Unknown
Food
2
CC9
9
1/2c
LM84996 South and Central America Colombia 1997 Food 1 CC1 1 4b
LM85003 South and Central America Colombia 1998 Food 1 CC1 248 4b
LM85008 South and Central America Colombia 1999 Food 2 CC121 121 1/2a
LM06-01614 South and Central America Colombia Unknown Environment 2 CC199 199 1/2a
LM85020 South and Central America Colombia 1999 Food 1 CC2 2 4b
LM85058 South and Central America Colombia 2000 Food 1 CC2 2 4b
LM06-01589 South and Central America Colombia Unknown Food 1 CC2 2 4b
LM84999 South and Central America Colombia 1998 Food 1 CC59 59 1/2b
LM85044 South and Central America Colombia 2000 Food 2 CC7 7 1/2a
LM06-01598 South and Central America Colombia Unknown Food 1 CC87 87 1/2b
LM84995 South and Central America Colombia 1997 Food 2 CC9 9 1/2c
LM06-01615
South and Central America
Colombia
Unknown
Food
2
CC9
9
1/2c
LM06-00547 South and Central America French Guiana 2006 Human 1 CC1 1 4b
LM78969 South and Central America French Guiana 1999 Vegetal 2 CC121 121 1/2a
LM17308
South and Central America
French Guiana
1990
Human
2
CC155
155
1/2a
LM16656 South and Central America Guatemala Unknown Human 1 CC1 1 4b
LM18311 South and Central America Guatemala Unknown Human 1 CC1 1 4b
LM18351
South and Central America
Guatemala
Unknown
Human
1
CC1
1
4b
LM84817 South and Central America Peru Unknown Unknown 1 284 4b
LM84813 South and Central America Peru Unknown Unknown 1 CC3 3 1/2b
LM84810 South and Central America Peru Unknown Unknown 2 CC9 9 1/2c

*Strains with no clonal complex (CC) assignation correspond to singletons, i.e. genotypes that are not closely related to any other genotype.
†ST, sequence type.
‡Determined by classical serotyping (s) or by PCR serotyping; for the latter, the indicated serotype corresponds to the most common serotype of the PCR group.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this study.

2These authors contributed equally to this study.

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