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Volume 18, Number 11—November 2012

CME ACTIVITY - Research

Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Interactions in Children

Qingfu Xu, Anthony Almudervar, Janet R. Casey, and Michael E. PichicheroComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Rochester General Hospital Research Institute, Rochester, New York, USA (Q. Xu, M.E. Pichichero),; University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester (A. Almudervar); Legacy Pediatrics, Rochester (J.R. Casey)

Main Article

Table 2

Predicted outcome of nasopharyngeal colonization among children when healthy and at onset of acute otitis media, Rochester, NY, USA, June 2006–May 2010*

Characteristics Outcome, OR (95% CI)
Spn
Hflu
Mcat
Healthy AOM Healthy AOM Healthy AOM
Hflu x Mcat

Neither§

1.0 1.0 NA NA NA NA

Hflu

1.33 (0.78–2.27) 0.40(0.22–0.71) NA NA NA NA

Mcat

1.42(1.06–1.99) 1.02 
(0.58–1.79) NA NA NA NA

Both


3.40 (1.99–5.81)
0.79 
(0.41–1.51)

NA
NA

NA
NA
Spn x Mcat

Neither§

NA NA 1.0 1.0 NA NA

Spn

NA NA 1.43 (0.83–2.45) 0.41(0.23–0.73) NA NA

Mcat

NA NA 0.81 (0.48–1.38) 0.37(0.19–0.71) NA NA

Both


NA
NA

2.10 (1.30–3.40)
0.28 (0.15–0.52)

NA
NA
Spn x Hflu

Neither§

NA NA NA NA 1.0 1.0

Spn

NA NA NA NA 1.51(1.12–2.03) 1.02 (0.58–1.80)

Hflu

NA NA NA NA 0.83 (0.49–1.41) 0.35(0.18–0.68)

Both


NA
NA

NA
NA

2.17 (1.29–3.64)
0.68 (0.36–1.32)
Saur

Absent§

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Present


0.55(0.34–0.88)
0.95 (0.43–2.08)

0.72 (0.33–1.54)
0.62 (0.19–2.00)

1.07 (0.69–1.66)
1.19 (0.52–2.70)
Male 0.0.84 (0.61–1.17) 0.85 (0.54–1.35) 0.83 (0.53–1.28) 0.75 (0.46–1.23) 1.07 (0.80–1.42) 1.94(1.21–3.11)
Daycare 1.87(1.34–2.59) 1.29 (0.81–2.05) 1.71(1.1–2.67) 2.06(1.26–3.38) 1.28 (0.94–1.73) 0.91 (0.58–1.45)
Breast-fed 1.29 (0.92–1.83) 1.07 (0.65–1.77) 0.75 (0.48–1.16) 0.81 (0.48–1.38) 1.00 (0.74–1.35) 1.02 (0.63–1.63)
Smoke 0.77 (0.48–1.22) 0.65 (0.31–1.34) 0.74 (0.38—1.43) 0.61 (0.29–1.30) 0.80 (0.53–1.20) 0.98 (0.41–2.30)
Otitis prone 2.34(1.19–4.59) 0.98 (0.63–1.53) 3.10(1.51–6.36) 1.42 (0.89–2.27) 1.16 (0.51–2.66) 0.98 (0.63–1.52)

*Boldface indicates significance. OR, odds ratio; Spn, Streptococcus pneumoniae; Hflu, Haemophilus influenzae; Mcat, Moraxella catarrhailis; AOM, acute otitis media; NA, not applicable; Saur, Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial interactions were analyzed by using repeated measures logistic regression models. †p≤0.01. ‡p≤0.05. §Reference.

Main Article

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