Phylogeography of Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Brazil, 2010–2011
Marcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes, Nuno Rodrigues Faria, Helena Baldez Vasconcelos, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida Medeiros, Clayton Pereira Silva de Lima, Valéria Lima Carvalho, Eliana Vieira Pinto da Silva, Jedson Ferreira Cardoso, Edivaldo Costa Sousa, Keley Nascimento Barbosa Nunes, Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues, Ana Barroso Abecasis, Marc A. Suchard, Philippe Lemey, and Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos
Author affiliations: Instituto Evandro Chagas, Ananindeua, Brazil (M.R.T. Nunes, H. Baldez Vasconcelos, D. Barbosa de Almeida Medeiros, C. Pereira Silva de Lima, V. Lima Carvalho, E. Vieira Pinto da Silva, J. Ferreira Cardoso, E. Costa Sousa Jr, K.N. Barbosa Nunes, S.G. Rodrigues, P.F. da Costa Vasconcelos); KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (N. Rodrigues Faria, P. Lemey); Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal (A. Barroso Abecasis); University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA (M.A. Suchard); and Universidade do Estado do Pará, Belém, Brazil (P.F. da Costa Vasconcelos)
Figure 3. . . Overview of spatiotemporal dispersal of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) from Southeast (SE) Asia to the Caribbean region and then to South America. Links between geographic locations represent phylogeny branches of the full genome maximum clade credibility tree, as projected by using SPREAD software (20). The blue-red gradient is coded to the arrows and depicts the relative time that has elapsed since the earliest inferred viral migration out of Southeast Asia (i.e., 1978, 95% Bayesian credible interval 1977–1980). Introductions are numbered as in Figure 1. Green indicates the presence of DENV-4 where complete genomic sequence data were available; yellow indicates sampled countries where complete genomic sequence data were available; gray, indicates no genomic data available; and circles indicate sampled locations and are colored according to the earliest migration that was detected from the sink location. RO, Roraima State; AMA, Amazonas State.
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