Westward Spread of Echinococcus multilocularis in Foxes, France, 2005–2010
Benoît Combes1, Sébastien Comte, Vincent Raton, Francis Raoul, Franck Boué, Gérald Umhang, Stéphanie Favier, Charlotte Dunoyer, Natacha Woronoff, and Patrick Giraudoux1
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Entente for the Control of Zoonoses, Nancy, France (B. Combes, S. Comte, V. Raton, S. Favier); University of Franche-Comté/National Center for Scientific Research, Besançon, France (F. Raoul, P. Giraudoux); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (P. Giraudoux); French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety, Nancy (F. Boué, G. Umhang); National Game Federation, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France (C. Dunoyer); Departmental Veterinary Laboratories Manager Association, Besançon (N. Woronoff)
Figure 1. . Fox locations (A, B) and department map (C), France, 2005–2010. Numbers in B and C are department national identification numbers. Panel B shows a close-up view of the departments of the Paris conurbation. Red circle, Echinococcosus multilocularis–positive fox; white circle, E. multilocularis–negative fox; dark gray, area totally urbanized (75 is Paris intra muros); medium gray, area intensively urbanized; light gray, periurban landscapes. C) Department 68 belongs to the historically echinococcosis-endemic area but could not be explored for the current study.
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