Volume 18, Number 12—December 2012
Volume 18, Number 12—December 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 8.32 MB - 187 pages]
Medscape CME Activity
Farm Animal Contact as Risk Factor for Transmission of Bovine-associated Salmonella Subtypes PDF Version [PDF - 223 KB - 8 pages]K. J. Cummings et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Salmonellosis prevention should focus on safe animal contact as well as food safety.
Salmonellosis is usually associated with foodborne transmission. To identify risk from animal contact, we compared animal exposures of case-patients infected with bovine-associated Salmonella subtypes with those of control-patients infected with non-bovine–associated subtypes. We used data collected in New York and Washington, USA, from March 1, 2008, through March 1, 2010. Contact with farm animals during the 5 days before illness onset was significantly associated with being a case-patient (odds ratio 3.2, p = 0.0008), after consumption of undercooked ground beef and unpasteurized milk were controlled for. Contact with cattle specifically was also significantly associated with being a case-patient (odds ratio 7.4, p = 0.0002), after food exposures were controlled for. More cases of bovine-associated salmonellosis in humans might result from direct contact with cattle, as opposed to ingestion of foods of bovine origin, than previously recognized. Efforts to control salmonellosis should include a focus on transmission routes other than foodborne.
Outbreak of Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus Infection among Attendees of an Agricultural Fair, Pennsylvania, USA, 2011
PDF Version [PDF - 230 KB - 8 pages]
K. K. Wong et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Avoiding or limiting contact with swine at agricultural events may help prevent A(H3N2)v virus infections in such settings.
During August 2011, influenza A (H3N2) variant [A(H3N2)v] virus infection developed in a child who attended an agricultural fair in Pennsylvania, USA; the virus resulted from reassortment of a swine influenza virus with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. We interviewed fair attendees and conducted a retrospective cohort study among members of an agricultural club who attended the fair. Probable and confirmed cases of A(H3N2)v virus infection were defined by serology and genomic sequencing results, respectively. We identified 82 suspected, 4 probable, and 3 confirmed case-patients who attended the fair. Among 127 cohort study members, the risk for suspected case status increased as swine exposure increased from none (4%; referent) to visiting swine exhibits (8%; relative risk 2.1; 95% CI 0.2–53.4) to touching swine (16%; relative risk 4.4; 95% CI 0.8–116.3). Fairs may be venues for zoonotic transmission of viruses with epidemic potential; thus, health officials should investigate respiratory illness outbreaks associated with agricultural events.
Subclinical Influenza Virus A Infections in Pigs Exhibited at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2009–2011
PDF Version [PDF - 221 KB - 6 pages]
A. S. Bowman et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Close contact between pigs and humans could result in zoonotic transmission.
Agricultural fairs are associated with bidirectional, interspecies transmission of influenza virus A between humans and pigs. We examined pigs exhibited at agricultural fairs in Ohio during 2009–2011 for signs of influenza-like illness and collected nasal swab specimens from a representative subset of these animals. Influenza virus A was recovered from pigs at 12/53 (22.6%) fairs during the 3-year sampling period. Pigs at 10/12 (83.3%) fairs from which influenza virus A was recovered did not show signs of influenza-like illness. Hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix gene combinations of the isolates were consistent with influenza virus A concurrently circulating among swine herds in the United States. Subclinical influenza virus A infections in pigs at agricultural fairs may pose a risk to human health and create challenges for passive surveillance programs for influenza virus A in swine herds.
Reservoir Competence of Wildlife Host Species for Babesia microti
PDF Version [PDF - 283 KB - 7 pages]
M. H. Hersh et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Competence data will aid understanding of the spread of human babesiosis.
Human babesiosis is an increasing health concern in the northeastern United States, where the causal agent, Babesia microti, is spread through the bite of infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We sampled 10 mammal and 4 bird species within a vertebrate host community in southeastern New York to quantify reservoir competence (mean percentage of ticks infected by an individual host) using real-time PCR. We found reservoir competence levels >17% in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda), and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and <6% but >0% in all other species, including all 4 bird species. Data on the relative contributions of multiple host species to tick infection with B. microti and level of genetic differentiation between B. microti strains transmitted by different hosts will help advance understanding of the spread of human babesiosis.
Diagnostic Assays for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever
PDF Version [PDF - 316 KB - 8 pages]
J. Vanhomwegen et al.View SummaryView Abstract
On-site testing would diminish time, costs, and risks involved in handling of highly infectious materials.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a highly contagious viral tick-borne disease with case-fatality rates as high as 50%. We describe a collaborative evaluation of the characteristics, performance, and on-site applicability of serologic and molecular assays for diagnosis of CCHF. We evaluated ELISA, immunofluorescence, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and low-density macroarray assays for detection of CCHF virus using precharacterized archived patient serum samples. Compared with results of local, in-house methods, test sensitivities were 87.8%–93.9% for IgM serology, 80.4%–86.1% for IgG serology, and 79.6%–83.3% for genome detection. Specificity was excellent for all assays; molecular test results were influenced by patient country of origin. Our findings demonstrate that well-characterized, reliable tools are available for CCHF diagnosis and surveillance. The on-site use of such assays by health laboratories would greatly diminish the time, costs, and risks posed by the handling, packaging, and shipping of highly infectious biologic material.
Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia Species in Bat Ticks, France, 2010
PDF Version [PDF - 551 KB - 10 pages]
C. Socolovschi et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Physicians should consider infections with these bacteria in patients who may have been bitten by bat ticks.
Argas vespertilionis, an argasid tick associated with bats and bat habitats in Europe, Africa, and Asia has been reported to bite humans; however, studies investigating the presence of vector-borne pathogens in these ticks are lacking. Using molecular tools, we tested 5 A. vespertilionis ticks collected in 2010 from the floor of a bat-infested attic in southwestern France that had been converted into bedrooms. Rickettsia sp. AvBat, a new genotype of spotted fever group rickettsiae, was detected and cultivated from 3 of the 5 ticks. A new species of the Ehrlichia canis group, Ehrlichia sp. AvBat, was also detected in 3 ticks. Four ticks were infected with Borrelia sp. CPB1, a relapsing fever agent of the Borrelia group that caused fatal borreliosis in a bat in the United Kingdom. Further studies are needed to characterize these new agents and determine if the A. vespertilionis tick is a vector and/or reservoir of these agents.
Nonprimate Hepaciviruses in Domestic Horses, United Kingdom
PDF Version [PDF - 379 KB - 7 pages]
S. Lyons et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Viruses related to human hepatitis C virus infect horses in the United Kingdom without evidence of hepatic or other systemic disease.
Although the origin of hepatitis C virus infections in humans remains undetermined, a close homolog of this virus, termed canine hepacivirus (CHV) and found in respiratory secretions of dogs, provides evidence for a wider distribution of hepaciviruses in mammals. We determined frequencies of active infection among dogs and other mammals in the United Kingdom. Samples from dogs (46 respiratory, 99 plasma, 45 autopsy samples) were CHV negative by PCR. Screening of 362 samples from cats, horses, donkeys, rodents, and pigs identified 3 (2%) positive samples from 142 horses. These samples were genetically divergent from CHV and nonprimate hepaciviruses that horses were infected with during 2012 in New York state, USA. Investigation of infected horses demonstrated nonprimate hepacivirus persistence, high viral loads in plasma (105–107 RNA copies/mL), and liver function test results usually within reference ranges, although several values ranged from high normal to mildly elevated. Disease associations and host range of nonprimate hepaciviruses warrant further investigation.
Transmission Routes for Nipah Virus from Malaysia and Bangladesh
PDF Version [PDF - 643 KB - 11 pages]
B. A. Clayton et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Nipah virus infection in humans is associated with a higher death rate in Bangladesh than in Malaysia. Additionally, Nipah virus spreads from person to person in Bangladesh but not in Malaysia. To investigate why these differences occur, researchers looked for differences in the virus strains from each country. In experimentally infected ferrets, they examined which tissues each strain infected and how each strain was excreted from the body. They found higher concentrations of the Bangladesh strain in secretions from the mouth. Increased oral excretion of the Bangladesh strain in humans might explain why person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus occurs in that region.
Human infections with Nipah virus in Malaysia and Bangladesh are associated with markedly different patterns of transmission and pathogenicity. To compare the 2 strains, we conducted an in vivo study in which 2 groups of ferrets were oronasally exposed to either the Malaysia or Bangladesh strain of Nipah virus. Viral shedding and tissue tropism were compared between the 2 groups. Over the course of infection, significantly higher levels of viral RNA were recovered from oral secretions of ferrets infected with the Bangladesh strain. Higher levels of oral shedding of the Bangladesh strain of Nipah virus might be a key factor in onward transmission in outbreaks among humans.
Virulent Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus, People’s Republic of China
PDF Version [PDF - 876 KB - 8 pages]
J. Feng et al.View SummaryView Abstract
YN strain shows severe pathogenicity in chickens.
A virulent avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was isolated from 30-day-old broiler chickens that exhibited respiratory symptoms, nephropathologic lesions, and a high proportion of deaths in the People’s Republic of China during 2005. The strain, designated YN, was genetically and pathologically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that YN and most of the previously characterized IBV isolates found in China were phylogenetically classified into 2 main genetic clusters. The YN isolate caused severe lesions and resulted in deaths of 65% in experimental infections of 30-day-old specific-pathogen–free chickens. Tracheal and severe kidney lesions developed in all infected birds, confirming the ability of YN strain to induce both respiratory and renal disease. IBV antigens were detected by immunohistochemical analysis in the trachea, lung, kidney, and bursa, consistent with histopathologic observations, virus isolation, and reverse transcription PCR detection. We showed that YN IBV exhibits severe pathogenicity in chickens, and that similar viruses are prevalent in China.
Medscape CME Activity
Enterovirus 71–associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, Southern Vietnam, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 249 KB - 4 pages]T. Khanh et al.View Abstract
We prospectively studied 3,791 children hospitalized during 2011 during a large outbreak of enterovirus 71–associated hand, foot, and mouth disease in Vietnam. Formal assessment of public health interventions, use of intravenous immunoglobulin and other therapies, and factors predisposing for progression of disease is needed to improve clinical management.
Epizootic Spread of Schmallenberg Virus among Wild Cervids, Belgium, Fall 2011
PDF Version [PDF - 283 KB - 3 pages]
A. Linden et al.View Abstract
Schmallenberg virus was detected in cattle and sheep in northwestern Europe in 2011. To determine whether wild ruminants are also susceptible, we measured antibody seroprevalence in cervids (roe deer and red deer) in Belgium in 2010 and 2011. Findings indicated rapid spread among these deer since virus emergence ≈250 km away.
Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 400 KB - 4 pages]
K. P. Dalton et al.View Abstract
Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.
Reservoir Competence of Vertebrate Hosts for Anaplasma phagocytophilum
PDF Version [PDF - 310 KB - 4 pages]
F. Keesing et al.View Abstract
Fourteen vertebrate species (10 mammals and 4 birds) were assessed for their ability to transmit Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the bacterium that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to uninfected feeding ixodid ticks. Small mammals were most likely to infect ticks but all species assessed were capable of transmitting the bacterium, in contrast to previous findings.
MRSA Variant in Companion Animals
PDF Version [PDF - 455 KB - 4 pages]
B. Walther et al.View Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylocoocus aureus (MRSA) harboring mecALGA251 has been isolated from humans and ruminants. Database screening identified this MRSA variant in cats, dogs, and a guinea pig in Germany during 2008–2011. The novel MRSA variant is not restricted to ruminants or humans, and contact with companion animals might pose a zoonotic risk.
Arctic-like Rabies Virus, Bangladesh
PDF Version [PDF - 337 KB - 4 pages]
K. Jamil et al.View Abstract
Arctic/Arctic-like rabies virus group 2 spread into Bangladesh ≈32 years ago. Because rabies is endemic to and a major public health problem in this country, we characterized this virus group. Its glycoprotein has 3 potential N-glycosylation sites that affect viral pathogenesis. Diversity of rabies virus might have public health implications in Bangladesh.
No Evidence of Prolonged Hendra Virus Shedding by 2 Patients, Australia
PDF Version [PDF - 270 KB - 3 pages]
C. Taylor et al.View Abstract
To better understand the natural history of Hendra virus infection and its tendency to relapse, 2 humans infected with this virus were monitored after acute infection. Virus was not detected in blood samples when patients were followed-up at 2 and 6 years. Thus, no evidence was found for prolonged virus shedding.
Differentiation of Prions from L-type BSE versus Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
PDF Version [PDF - 1.07 MB - 4 pages]
S. Nicot et al.View Abstract
We compared transmission characteristics for prions from L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy and MM2-cortical sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the Syrian golden hamster and an ovine prion protein–transgenic mouse line and isolated distinct prion strains. Our findings suggest the absence of a causal relationship between these diseases, but further investigation is warranted.
Hepatitis E Virus Outbreak in Monkey Facility, Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 249 KB - 3 pages]
H. Yamamoto et al.View Abstract
An outbreak of hepatitis E virus occurred in an outdoor monkey breeding facility in Japan during 2004–2006. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this virus was genotype 3. This virus was experimentally transmitted to a cynomolgus monkey. Precautions should be taken by facility personnel who work with monkeys to prevent infection.
Group 2 Vaccinia Virus, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 398 KB - 4 pages]
F. Assis et al.View Abstract
In 2011, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia, affecting dairy cattle and dairy workers in Brazil. Genetic and phenotypic analyses identified this isolate as distinct from others recently identified, thereby reinforcing the hypothesis that different vaccinia virus strains co-circulate in Brazil.
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Thailand, 2010–2011
PDF Version [PDF - 392 KB - 5 pages]
D. Nilubol et al.View Abstract
Characterization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates from pigs in Thailand showed 30-aa discontinuous deletions in nonstructural protein 2, identical to sequences for highly pathogenic PRRSV. The novel virus is genetically related to PRRSV from China and may have spread to Thailand through illegal transport of infectious animals from bordering countries.
Cygnet River Virus, a Novel Orthomyxovirus from Ducks, Australia
PDF Version [PDF - 257 KB - 3 pages]
A. Kessell et al.View Abstract
A novel virus, designated Cygnet River virus (CyRV), was isolated in embryonated eggs from Muscovy ducks in South Australia. CyRV morphologically resembles arenaviruses; however, sequencing identified CyRV as an orthomyxovirus. The high mortality rate among ducks co-infected with salmonellae suggests that CyRV may be pathogenic, either alone or in concert with other infections.
High Diversity of RNA Viruses in Rodents, Ethiopia
PDF Version [PDF - 354 KB - 4 pages]
Y. Meheretu et al.View Abstract
We investigated synanthropic small mammals in the Ethiopian Highlands as potential reservoirs for human pathogens and found that 2 rodent species, the Ethiopian white-footed mouse and Awash multimammate mouse, are carriers of novel Mobala virus strains. The white-footed mouse also carries a novel hantavirus, the second Murinae-associated hantavirus found in Africa.
West Nile Virus Neurologic Disease in Humans, South Africa, September 2008–May 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 4 pages]
D. Zaayman and M. VenterView Abstract
We investigated West Nile virus (WNV) as a possible disease etiology in persons hospitalized in South Africa. Of 206 specimens tested, 36 had WNV neutralizing antibodies, significantly more than in similar earlier serosurveys. Seven probable acute WNV cases were identified, suggesting WNV may be overlooked as an etiology of severe disease in South Africa.
Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Escherichia coli in Wild Birds and Free-range Poultry, Bangladesh
PDF Version [PDF - 295 KB - 4 pages]
B. Hasan et al.View Abstract
Multidrug resistance was found in 22.7% of Escherichia coli isolates from bird samples in Bangladesh; 30% produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases, including clones of CTX-M genes among wild and domestic birds. Unrestricted use of antimicrobial drugs in feed for domestic birds and the spread of resistance genes to the large bird reservoir in Bangladesh are growing problems.
Westward Spread of Echinococcus multilocularis in Foxes, France, 2005–2010
PDF Version [PDF - 546 KB - 4 pages]
B. Combes et al.View Abstract
During 2005–2010, we investigated Echinococcus multilocularis infection within fox populations in a large area in France. The parasite is much more widely distributed than hitherto thought, spreading west, with a much higher prevalence than previously reported. The parasite also is present in the large conurbation of Paris.
Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Bank Voles, France
PDF Version [PDF - 211 KB - 3 pages]
M. Vayssier-Taussat et al.View Abstract
To further assess the geographic occurrence, possible vectors, and prevalence of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, we analyzed spleen tissues from 276 voles trapped close to human settlements in France; 5 were infected with the organism. Sequencing showed the isolates carried the same genotype as the bacteria that caused disease in humans and animals elsewhere in Europe.
Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Cambodia
PDF Version [PDF - 356 KB - 4 pages]
V. Duong et al.View Abstract
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), probably Asian genotype, was first detected in Cambodia in 1961. Despite no evidence of acute or recent CHIKV infections since 2000, real-time reverse transcription PCR of serum collected in 2011 detected CHIKV, East Central South African genotype. Spatiotemporal patterns and phylogenetic clustering indicate that the virus probably originated in Thailand.
Analysis of Complete Puumala Virus Genome, Finland
PDF Version [PDF - 258 KB - 3 pages]
A. Plyusnina et al.View Abstract
Puumala virus causes nephropathia epidemica, a rodent-borne zoonosis that is endemic to Europe. We sequenced the complete Puumala virus genome that was directly recovered from a person who died and compared it with those of viruses from local bank voles. The virus strain involved was neither a unique nor rare genetic variant.
Thelaziosis in Humans, a Zoonotic Infection, Spain, 2011
PDF Version [PDF - 411 KB - 3 pages]
I. Fuentes et al.View Abstract
After Thelazia callipaeda infection in dogs and cats were reported in Spain, a human case of thelaziosis in this country was reported, suggesting zoonotic transmission. The active reproductive status of this nematode in situ indicates that humans are competent hosts for this parasite.
Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt
PDF Version [PDF - 223 KB - 3 pages]
T. Vergne et al.View Abstract
We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies.
Leptospirosis Diagnostic Challenges, American Samoa
PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 3 pages]
C. L. Lau and J. M. DePasquale
African Swine Fever Virus, Tanzania, 2010–2012
PDF Version [PDF - 220 KB - 3 pages]
G. Misinzo et al.
Controlling Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Bangladesh
PDF Version [PDF - 122 KB - 3 pages]
S. P. Mondal et al.
Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Shellfish, United Kingdom
PDF Version [PDF - 148 KB - 3 pages]
C. Crossan et al.
Autochthonous Gnathostomiasis, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 522 KB - 3 pages]
T. Vargas et al.
Zoonotic Transmission of Pathogens by Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Romania
PDF Version [PDF - 146 KB - 2 pages]
O. Paduraru et al.
Prion in Saliva of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy–Infected Cattle
PDF Version [PDF - 238 KB - 2 pages]
H. Okada et al.
Reptile- and Amphibian-associated Salmonellosis in Childcare Centers, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]
N. M. Vora et al.
Migratory Birds, Ticks, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus
PDF Version [PDF - 282 KB - 3 pages]
M. Lindeborg et al.
Wild Boars as Hosts of Human-Pathogenic Anaplasma phagocytophilum Variants
PDF Version [PDF - 134 KB - 2 pages]
J. de la Fuente and C. Gortazar
About the Cover
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online OnlySurveillance of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Transmitted by Small Companion AnimalsM. J. Day et al.View Abstract
The One Health paradigm for global health recognizes that most new human infectious diseases will emerge from animal reservoirs. Little consideration has been given to the known and potential zoonotic infectious diseases of small companion animals. Cats and dogs closely share the domestic environment with humans and have the potential to act as sources and sentinels of a wide spectrum of zoonotic infections. This report highlights the lack of a coordinated global surveillance scheme that monitors disease in these species and makes a case for the necessity of developing a strategy to implement such surveillance.
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online OnlyWorkshop on Treatment of and Postexposure Prophylaxis for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei Infection, 2010R. Lipsitz et al.View Abstract
The US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise convened subject matter experts at the 2010 HHS Burkholderia Workshop to develop consensus recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis against and treatment for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei infections, which cause melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Drugs recommended by consensus of the participants are ceftazidime or meropenem for initial intensive therapy, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for eradication therapy. For postexposure prophylaxis, recommended drugs are trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or co-amoxiclav. To improve the timely diagnosis of melioidosis and glanders, further development and wide distribution of rapid diagnostic assays were also recommended. Standardized animal models and B. pseudomallei strains are needed for further development of therapeutic options. Training for laboratory technicians and physicians would facilitate better diagnosis and treatment options.
- Page created: December 21, 2012
- Page last updated: December 21, 2012
- Page last reviewed: December 21, 2012
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