Southeast Asian Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses in Eastern Asia
Nick J. Knowles, JiJun He, Youjun Shang, Jemma Wadsworth, Begoña Valdazo-González, Hiroyuki Onosato, Katsuhiko Fukai, Kazuki Morioka, Kazuo Yoshida, In-Soo Cho, Su-Mi Kim, Jong-Hyeon Park, Kwang-Nyeong Lee, Geraldine Luk, Vladimir Borisov, Alexey Scherbakov, Anna Timina, Dashzeveg Bold, Tung Nguyen, David J. Paton, Jef M. Hammond, Xiangtao Liu, and Donald P. King
Author affiliations: Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, UK (N.J. Knowles, J. Wadsworth, B. Valdazo-González, D.J. Paton, J.M. Hammond, D.P. King); Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Gansu, China (J. He, Y. Shang, X. Liu); National Institute of Animal Health, Tokyo, Japan (H. Onosato, K. Fukai, K. Morioka, K. Yoshida); National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Gyeonggi Do, South Korea (I.-S. Cho, S.-M. Kim, J.-H. Park, K.-N. Lee); Tai Lung Veterinary Laboratory, Hong Kong, China (G. Luk); Federal Centre for Animal Health, Vladimir, Russia (V. Borisov, A. Scherbakov, A. Timina); State Central Veterinary Laboratory, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (D. Bold); National Centre for Veterinary Diagnostics, Hanoi, Vietnam (T. Nguyen)
Figure A1. Unrooted neighbor-joining trees showing nucleotide sequence relationships between A) serotype A and B) serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses from eastern Asia (red, China, including Hong Kong; dark blue, South Korea; orange, Russia; green, Mongolia; light blue, Japan) compared with closely related virus sequences from countries in mainland Southeast Asia to which FMD is endemic (black areas). Thirty-one viral protein 1 nucleotide sequences obtained during this study have been submitted to GenBank (accession nos. JQ070301–JQ070332). Additional field outbreaks reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for which sequence data are not available are shown as black dots (http://web.oie.int/wahis/). Percentage of replicate trees in which associated taxa clustered together in the bootstrap test (1,000 replicates) is shown next to the branches. *Reference number for sequence not assigned by the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease. † and ‡ indicate 2 outbreaks in Russia; no sample locations were reported to OIE for O/NC/CHA/2010, O/DY/CHA/2010, O/TZ/CHA/2010, or O/MY/CHA/2010. Scale bars indicate nucleotide substitutions per site.
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