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Volume 19, Number 3—March 2013

Synopsis

Human Leptospirosis Trends, the Netherlands, 1925–2008

Marga G.A. GorisComments to Author , Kimberly R. Boer, Tamara A.T.E. Duarte, Suzanne J. Kliffen, and Rudy A. Hartskeerl
Author affiliations: Author affiliation: Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Table 1

Characteristics for case-patients with leptospirosis, the Netherlands, 1925–2008*

Characteristic Total cases, n = 2,553 Autochthonous cases, n = 2,231† Imported cases, n = 318† p value
Male sex‡
2,306 (91.1)
2,025 (91.6)
278 (87.4)
0.014
Mean (SD) age, y‡
33.8 (17.1)
34.0 (17.5)
32.6 (14.4)
0.848
Type of contact
Recreational activity 1,250 (49.0) 990 (44.4) 257 (80.8) <0.001
Job-related 685 (26.8) 664 (29.8) 21 (6.6) <0.001
Accident 367 (14.4) 345 (15.5) 22 (6.9) <0.001
Unknown
250 (9.8)
232 (10.4)
18 (5.7)

Likely route of infection
Water 1,457 (57.1) 1,219 (54.6) 236 (74.2) <0.001
Water and animals 500 (19.6) 446 (20.0) 53 (16.7) 0.162
Animals 351 (13.7) 346 (15.5) 4 (1.3) <0.001
Other§ 16 (0.6) 14 (0.6) 2 (0.6) 1.000
Unknown
229 (9.0)
206 (9.2)
23 (7.2)

Host exposure¶ (n = 851) (n = 792) (n = 57)
Rats 443 (52.1) 411 (51.9) 32 (56.1) <0.535
Mice 123 (14.6) 120 (15.2) 3 (5.3) 0.004
Other rodents 31 (3.6) 28 (3.5) 3 (5.3) 0.789
Cows 231 (27.1) 224 (28.3) 6 (10.5) <0.001
Dogs 172 (20.2) 158 (19.9) 13 (22.8) 0.603
Other animals
185 (21.7)
168 (21.2)
16 (28.1)
0.088
Serogroup
Icterohaemorrhagiae 1,702 (66.7) 1,588 (71.2) 111 (34.9) <0.001
Grippotyphosa 196 (7.7) 174 (7.8) 22 (6.9) 0.595
Sejroe 128 (5.0) 116 (5.2) 12 (3.8) 0.771
Canicola 93 (3.6) 87 (3.9) 6 (1.9) 0.230
Pomona 54 (2.1) 45 (2.0) 9 (2.8) 0.107
Autumnalis 16 (0.6) 1 (0.1) 15 (4.7) <0.001
Bataviae 11 (0.4) 0 11 (3.5) <0.001
Other# 54 (2.1) 12 (0.5) 42 (13.2) <0.001
Unknown
299 (11.7)
208 (9.3)
90 (28.3)
<0.001
Cultures performed 1,335 (52.3) 1,151 (51.6) 182 (57.2) 0.060
Positive result 306 (22.9) 256 (22.2) 49 (26.9) 0.162

*Values are no. (%) unless otherwise indicated.
†Data for autochthonous and imported cases could not be obtained for 4 patients.
‡Sex was recorded for 2,532 patients: 2,210 patients with autochthonous cases and 318 patients with imported cases. Age was recorded 2,427 patients; 2,105 patients with autochthonous cases and 381 patients with imported cases.
§Laboratory accidents or contact with mud/soil.
¶Animal specified is not mutually exclusive; 1 patient could have been in contact with >1 animal.
#For total infections, Australis (n = 12), Celledoni (n = 7), Sejroe/Hebdomadis/Mini complex (n = 7), Javanica (n = 6), Pyrogenes (n = 6), Hebdomadis (n = 4), Shermani (n = 4), Ballum (n = 2), Cynopteri (n = 2), Tarassovi (n = 2), Celledoni/Javanica complex (n = 1), Mini (n = 1). For autochthonous infections, Australis (n = 6), Ballum (n = 2), Tarassovi (n = 2), Javanica (n = 1), Sejroe/Hebdomadis/Mini complex (n = 1). For imported infections, Celledoni (n = 7), Australis (n = 6), Pyrogenes (n = 6), Sejroe/Hebdomadis/Mini complex (n = 6), Javanica (n = 5), Hebdomadis (n = 4), Shermani (n = 4), Cynopteri (n = 2), Celledoni/Javanica complex (n = 1), Mini (n = 1).

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