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Volume 19, Number 3—March 2013

Synopsis

Human Leptospirosis Trends, the Netherlands, 1925–2008

Marga G.A. GorisComments to Author , Kimberly R. Boer, Tamara A.T.E. Duarte, Suzanne J. Kliffen, and Rudy A. Hartskeerl
Author affiliations: Author affiliation: Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Table 4

Characteristics for case-patients with leptospirosis, the Netherlands and other regions, 1925–2008*

Characteristic
Period
1925–1934
1935–1944
1945–1954
1955–1964
1965–1974
1975–1984
1985–1994
1995–2004
2005–2008
No. case-patients 289 352 271 434 259 159 379 281 129
Hospitalized, %
37.4
68.8
78.6
92.1
83.8
84.3
62.5
72.6
74.4
Antimicrobial drug treatment, % NA NA 53.3 63.8 61.8 57.9 72.3 82.9 83.7
Dialysis, % NA NA 0 2.0 5.0 17.6 8.2 10.0 12.4
ICU, %
NA
NA
0
0.0
0.0
7.5
6.6
16.4
17.8
CFR, %
11.1
9.9
9.6
6.0
8.1
3.8
4.0
0.4
3.1
Imported infections 0 2 (0.6) 3 (1.1) 20 (4.6) 22 (8.5) 17 (0.7) 92 (24.3) 94 (33.5) 68 (53.1)
Europe 0 2 2 19 20 9 40 27 13
Asia 0 0 1 0 1 4 38 48 42
Sub-Saharan Africa 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 1
South America 0 0 0 0 1 4 6 7 7
Central and North 
 America 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 5
Middle East 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
Australia
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
Likely route of infection
Water
Autochthonous 222 (92.8) 251 (82.3) 194 (78.7) 333 (87.4) 189 (88.3) 111 (79.9) 157 (60.4) 162 (88.5) 46 (79.3)
Imported NA 2 (100) 2 (66.7) 18 (94.7) 19 (95.0) 15 (93.8) 84 (98.8) 89 (100.0) 60 (98.4)
Animal
Autochthonous 15 (6.3) 52 (17.0) 48 (19.5) 44 (11.5) 25 (11.7) 27 (19.4) 103 (39.6) 21 (11.5) 11 (19.0)
Imported NA 0 0 1 (5.3) 1 (5.0) 1 (6.2) 1 (1.2) 0 0
Other
Autochthonous 2 (0.8) 2 (0.7) 4 (1.6) 4 (1.0) 0 1 (0.7) 0 0 1 (1.7)
Imported
NA
NA
1 (33.3)
0
0
0
0
0
1 (1.6)
*Values are no. (%) except as indicated. ICU, intensive care unit; CFR, case-fatality rate; NA, not available.

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