Lack of Norovirus Replication and Histo-Blood Group Antigen Expression in 3-Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cells
Melissa M. Herbst-Kralovetz , Andrea L. Radtke, Margarita K. Lay, Brooke E. Hjelm, Alice N. Bolick, Shameema S. Sarker, Robert L. Atmar, David H. Kingsley, Charles J. Arntzen, Mary K. Estes, and Cheryl A. Nickerson
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (M.M. Herbst-Kralovetz, A.L. Radtke); Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (M.M. Herbst-Kralovetz, A.L. Radtke, B.E. Hjelm, A.N. Bolick, S.S. Sarker, C.J. Arntzen, C.A. Nickerson); Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA (M.K. Lay, R.L. Atmar, M.K. Estes); Pontificia Universidad, Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile (M.K. Lay); Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix (B.E. Hjelm); US Department of Agriculture, Dover, Delaware (D.H. Kingsley)
Figure 1. . . Morphologic changes in Norwalk virus (NV)–infected 3-dimensional INT-407 aggregates. Phase contrast micrographs of 3-dimensional intestinal aggregates cultured in the rotating wall vessel bioreactor and subsequently inoculated with live NV (panels A–C), inactivated NV (γ-inactivated) (panels D–F), or phosphate-buffered saline (mock-uninfected control) (panels G–I) at 6, 12, and 24 h after inoculation. Arrows indicate cells (or cellular debris) that were released from the support beads. The beads appear as large, distinct spheres after the removal of bound cells. Original magnification ×20.
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