Lack of Norovirus Replication and Histo-Blood Group Antigen Expression in 3-Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cells
Melissa M. Herbst-Kralovetz , Andrea L. Radtke, Margarita K. Lay, Brooke E. Hjelm, Alice N. Bolick, Shameema S. Sarker, Robert L. Atmar, David H. Kingsley, Charles J. Arntzen, Mary K. Estes, and Cheryl A. Nickerson
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (M.M. Herbst-Kralovetz, A.L. Radtke); Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (M.M. Herbst-Kralovetz, A.L. Radtke, B.E. Hjelm, A.N. Bolick, S.S. Sarker, C.J. Arntzen, C.A. Nickerson); Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA (M.K. Lay, R.L. Atmar, M.K. Estes); Pontificia Universidad, Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile (M.K. Lay); Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix (B.E. Hjelm); US Department of Agriculture, Dover, Delaware (D.H. Kingsley)
Figure 3. . . No evidence of productive Norwalk virus (NV) replication in 3-dimensional INT-407 aggregates by confocal microscopy analysis of viral proteins. Three-dimensional INT-407 aggregates 24 h post inoculation (hpi) (panels A, B) and 48 hpi (panels C, D) with live NV, 24 hpi with inactivated NV (panels E, F), or phosphate-buffered saline alone controls (panels G, H). Aggregates were stained for viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) (panels A, C, E, G) or nonstructural protein VPg (panels B, D, F, H). Nuclei were counterstained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) (not shown in print issue). Original magnification ×63.
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