Lack of Norovirus Replication and Histo-Blood Group Antigen Expression in 3-Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cells
Melissa M. Herbst-Kralovetz , Andrea L. Radtke, Margarita K. Lay, Brooke E. Hjelm, Alice N. Bolick, Shameema S. Sarker, Robert L. Atmar, David H. Kingsley, Charles J. Arntzen, Mary K. Estes, and Cheryl A. Nickerson
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (M.M. Herbst-Kralovetz, A.L. Radtke); Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (M.M. Herbst-Kralovetz, A.L. Radtke, B.E. Hjelm, A.N. Bolick, S.S. Sarker, C.J. Arntzen, C.A. Nickerson); Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA (M.K. Lay, R.L. Atmar, M.K. Estes); Pontificia Universidad, Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile (M.K. Lay); Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix (B.E. Hjelm); US Department of Agriculture, Dover, Delaware (D.H. Kingsley)
Figure 4. . . Three-dimensional (3-D) INT-407 intestinal cell aggregates do not express the histo-blood group antigens important for Norwalk virus (NV) attachment. Monolayer (ML) INT-407, 3-D INT-407 aggregates, and Caco-2 ML (positive control) were labeled with 2 different H type 1 (BG-4 and UEA-1) antibodies and with antibodies against H type 2, Leb, and Lea (green) and imaged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Nuclei were counterstained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (blue). Scale bars = 50 μm.
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