Lack of Norovirus Replication and Histo-Blood Group Antigen Expression in 3-Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cells
Melissa M. Herbst-Kralovetz , Andrea L. Radtke, Margarita K. Lay, Brooke E. Hjelm, Alice N. Bolick, Shameema S. Sarker, Robert L. Atmar, David H. Kingsley, Charles J. Arntzen, Mary K. Estes, and Cheryl A. Nickerson
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (M.M. Herbst-Kralovetz, A.L. Radtke); Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (M.M. Herbst-Kralovetz, A.L. Radtke, B.E. Hjelm, A.N. Bolick, S.S. Sarker, C.J. Arntzen, C.A. Nickerson); Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA (M.K. Lay, R.L. Atmar, M.K. Estes); Pontificia Universidad, Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile (M.K. Lay); Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix (B.E. Hjelm); US Department of Agriculture, Dover, Delaware (D.H. Kingsley)
Figure 5. . . Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces morphologic changes consistent with cytopathic effects in Norwalk virus–inoculated 3-dimensional INT-407 aggregates. Two independent sets of light microscopy images show 3-D intestinal aggregates treated with increasing concentrations of LPS for 24 h. Arrows indicate cells (or cellular debris) that were released from the support beads. Original magnification ×20.
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