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Volume 19, Number 3—March 2013


Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection, California, USA, 1993–2008

John Z. MetcalfeComments to Author , Travis C. Porco, Janice Westenhouse, Mark Damesyn, Matt Facer, Julia Hill, Qiang Xia, James P. Watt, Philip C. Hopewell, and Jennifer Flood
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of California, San Francisco, California, USA (J.Z. Metcalfe, T.C. Porco, P.C. Hopewell); California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA (J. Westenhouse, J. Hill, J.P. Watt, J. Flood); California Department of Public Health, Sacramento, California, USA (M. Damesyn, M. Facer); RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA (Q. Xia)

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Table 3

Multivariate analysis of factors associated with deaths among HIV-infected TB patients, California, USA, 1993–2008*

Characteristic Adjusted relative risk (95% CI)
Time period
2001–2008 Referent
1996–2000 1.18 (0.98–1.41)
2.21 (1.88–2.60)
1.29 (1.22–1.36)
Female sex
1.36 (1.12–1.65)
White non-Hispanic Referent
Black non-Hispanic 0.86 (0.73–1.01)
Hispanic 0.86 (0.67–1.09)
Asian/Pacific Islander
0.70 (0.11–4.52)
Foreign birth
0.65 (0.36–1.17)
HIV risk group‡
MSM Referent
IDU 1.02 (0.88–1.19)
Heterosexual contact 0.58 (0.43–0.78)
1.24 (1.04–1.48)
Sputum smear-positivity
1.23 (1.07–1.40)
CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, cells/mm3§
<50 6.45 (2.67–15.58)
50–99 5.57 (2.40–13.90)
100–199 3.09 (1.28–7.46)
200–349 1.47 (0.58–3.72)
350–499 Referent
1.99 (0.66–6.08)
TB as AIDS-defining diagnosis¶ 1.22 (1.07–1.38)

*TB, tuberculosis; MSM, men who have sex with men; IDU, injection drug user.
†Per 10-year increase in age.
‡Categories are mutually exclusive; any IDU was included in the IDU category.
§CD4+ T-cell counts were imputed (online Technical Appendix,
¶TB was considered the AIDS-defining event if TB and AIDS were reported within 6 months of each other.

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