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Volume 19, Number 6—June 2013

Letter

Flaviviruses in Game Birds, Southern Spain, 2011–2012

Francisco Llorente, Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Jovita Fernández-Pinero, Ramón Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola, and Miguel Ángel Jiménez-ClaveroComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Valdeolmos, Spain (F. Llorente, E. Pérez-Ramírez, J. Fernández-Pinero, M.Á. Jiménez-Clavero); Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Seville, Spain (R. Soriguer, J. Figuerola)

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Table

Results of serologic studies in red-legged partridges and common pheasants, southern Spain, 2011–2012*

Species, no. Age ELISA, WNV VNT titers†
Interpretation‡
WNV BAGV USUV
Partridges (Alectoris rufa), n = 159
6 Juvenile + 10–20 <5 <5 WNV
7 Adult + 10–20 <5 <5 WNV
1 Adult + 160 20 20 WNV
4 Not determined + 10–80 <5 <5 WNV
1 Not determined + 80 <5 10 WNV
2 Juvenile + 10 40 <5 BAGV
1 Juvenile + 20 80 10 BAGV
1 Juvenile <5 160 10 BAGV
2 Adult + 20, 40 80, 320 10 BAGV
1 Adult + <5 20 <5 BAGV
1 Adult + <10‡ 40 <10‡ BAGV
1 Adult <5 40 <5 BAGV
1 Adult + <5 <5 40 USUV
2 Juvenile + 10, 20 20, 40 <5 Flavivirus
3 Adult + <5 <5 <5 Flavivirus
2 Adult + 20, 80 80, 160 40 Flavivirus
1 Adult + 20 <5 10 Flavivirus
1 Adult + 160 <20‡ 80 Flavivirus
1 Adult + 40 40 <10‡ Flavivirus
1 Adult <10‡ 20 <10‡ Flavivirus
3 Not determined + <5 <5 <5 Flavivirus
1
Not determined
+
<5
10
<5
Flavivirus
Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), n = 13
1 Adult + 80 20 10 WNV
2 Not determined + 10, 20 <5 <5 WNV
2 Adult + 10, 80 80, 640 20 BAGV
1 Adult <5 20 <5 BAGV
3 Adult + 20–40 20–160 40–160 Flavivirus
1 Adult + 10 <5 <5 Flavivirus
1 Adult <5 10 <5 Flavivirus
1
Adult
Not determined
<20‡
<20‡
40
Flavivirus
Positive, no. (%)
Partridges 40 (25) 31 (19) 17 (11) 11 (7)
Pheasants 9 (69) 9 (69) 8 (62) 7 (54)
Total 49 (28) 40 (23) 25 (15) 18 (10)

*WNV, West Nile virus; VNT, virus neutralization test; BAGV, Bagaza virus; USUV, Usutu virus; +, positive; –, negative. Boldface indicates VNT-positive serum.
†Serum samples were titrated from 5 to 1,280 dilutions and neutralization titers of >10 were considered positive.
‡Differentiation was based on comparison of VNT titers obtained in parallel against the 3 flaviviruses: the neutralizing immune response observed was considered specific when VNT titer for a given virus was >4-fold higher than titers obtained for the other viruses; samples showing VNT titer differences <4-fold between the viruses examined were considered positive for flavivirus but not conclusive for any specific virus.
‡VNT at the indicated (or lower) dilution(s) could not be determined because of cytotoxic effect caused by the sample.

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