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Volume 19, Number 9—September 2013

Research

Plasmodium falciparum Mutant Haplotype Infection during Pregnancy Associated with Reduced Birthweight, Tanzania

Daniel T. R. MinjaComments to Author , Christentze Schmiegelow, Bruno Mmbando, Stéphanie Boström, Mayke Oesterholt, Pamela Magistrado, Caroline Pehrson, Davis John, Ali Salanti, Adrian J.F. Luty1, Martha Lemnge, Thor Theander, John Lusingu, and Michael Alifrangis
Author affiliations: National Institute for Medical Research, Tanga Centre, Tanzania (D.T.R. Minja, B. Mmbando, P. Magistrado, M. Lemnge, J. Lusingu); University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark (D.T.R. Minja, C. Schmiegelow, P. Magistrado, C. Pehrson, A. Salanti, T. Theander, J. Lusingu, M. Alifrangis); Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm, Sweden (S. Boström); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M. Oesterholt, A.J.F. Luty); Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania (D. John)

Main Article

Table 3

Determinants of birthweight for children born to 49 pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum genotype data, Korogwe District, Tanga Region, Tanzania, September 2008–October 2010*

Variable Univariate analysis
Multivariate analysis†
Coefficient 95% CI p value Coefficient 95% CI p value
MUAC at study inclusion, cm
49
1 to 97
0.047

15
28 to 59
0.47
Gestational age, wk
At study inclusion 20 63 to 22 0.340
At delivery
90
23 to 204
0.120

90
1 to 179
0.048
Sex of newborn, F
106
432 to 221
0.520




Maternal age, y
37
10 to 64
0.009

2
30 to 35
0.890
Gravidity (>2 pregnancies)
477
166 to 788
0.004

434
152 to 716
0.004
Maternal weight at study inclusion, kg
9
12 to 30
0.370




Maternal weight gain, kg
From study inclusion to ANV3 38 47 to 124 0.372
From ANV3–ANV4
22
−72 to 28
0.370




Infecting haplotype, sextuple
326
621 to 31
0.031

359
601 to 117
0.005
Parasite density, per 1,000 IE/μL
0.09
−3 to 3
0.95




No. infections‡
308
649 to 34
0.08

143
426 to 140
0.31
No. IPTp doses before delivery
303
614 to 8
0.06

231
498 to 35
0.087
Maternal HIV status positive
230
308, to 769
0.390




Place of delivery
Hospital 86 381 to 209 0.56
Other than hospital 12 696 to 671 0.971

*Effect on birthweight in the multivariate analyses is stated for all variables with p<0.2 in the univariate analyses. In the final model, only variables with p<0.10 were included in the model. MUAC, mid upper arm circumference; ANV3, antenatal clinic visit at gestational week 30; ANV3–4, ANV at gestational week 30–36; IE, infected erythrocytes.
†Blank spaces indicate no data/information. Boldface indicates statistical significance (p<0.05).
‡No. infections is based on all infections detected in the woman by using a rapid diagnostic test and/or blood smear, regardless of whether sequence specific oligonucleotide probes–ELISA was conducted.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Mère et Enfant Face aux Infections Tropicales, Paris, France.

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