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Volume 5, Number 1—February 1999

Perspective

Socioeconomic and Behavioral Factors Leading to Acquired Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics in Developing Countries

Iruka N. Okeke*, Adebayo Lamikanra*, and Robert Edelman†Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria;; †University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

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Table 1

Pathogens with a steadily increasing prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in developing tropical countries

Pathogen Drug(s) Country (years) Ref.
Shigella flexneri,S. dysenteriae ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfonamides (alone or with trimethoprim), nalidixic acid Bangladesh (1983-1990)
Brazil (1988-1993)
Rwanda (1983-1993)
Thailand (1981-1995) (6)(7)(8)(5)
Vibrio cholerae cotrimethoxazole, nalidixic acid, ampicillin Guinea-Bissau (1987-1995)
India (1993-1995) (9) (10)
Salmonella typhi ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimethoxazole Bangladesh (1989-1993) (3)
Salmonella (nontyphoidal) cotrimethoxazole Thailand (1981-1995) (5)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli cotrimethoxazole Thailand (1981-1995) (5)
Campylobacter fluoroquinolones Thailand (1987-1995) (5)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampicin (primary resistance) Kenya (1981-1990)
Morocco (1992-1994) (11) (12)

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