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Volume 5, Number 1—February 1999

Research

Dual and Recombinant Infections: An Integral Part of the HIV-1 Epidemic in Brazil

Artur Ramos*†, Amilcar Tanuri†, Mauro Schechter†, Mark A. Rayfield*, Dale J. Hu*, Maulori C. Cabral†, Claudiu I. Bandea*, James Baggs‡, and Danuta Pieniazek*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; ‡Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

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Table 1

Sensitivity of detection of HIV-1 dual infections caused by viruses of subtypes B and F

No. of viral subtype
Ratio
F:B No. of experiments AluI digestion patterns of prt
F B B F B&F
100 100 1:1 1 +
50 50 1:1 4 +
25 25 1:1 4 + (1) + (3)
10 10 1:1 4 +
5 5 1:1 4 + (3) + (1)
100 5 20:1 2 + (1) + (1)
100 10 10:1 2 + (1) + (1)
100 25 4:1 2 +
100 50 2:1 2 +
5 100 1:20 1 +
10 100 1:10 1 +
25 100 1:4 1 +
50 100 1:2 1 +
100 0 3 +
50 0 3 +
25 0 3 +
10 0 3 +
5 0 2 +
0 100 3 +
0 50 2 +
0 25 3 +
0 10 3 +
0 5 3 +

Absence (-) and presence (+) of AluI digestion pattern of prt characteristic for subtype B, subtype F, and combination of subtypes B and F (Figure 1). The cloned proviral DNA of HIV-1 subtypes B and F spanning a 1444-bp fragment from p24 gag to rt was used for the nested PCR amplification of prt. Amplified products were digested with AluI restriction enzyme, and the presence of two digestion patterns was analyzed on a 10% polyacrylamide gel by ethidium-bromide staining.

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