Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines
Peter Daszak* , Lee Berger†‡, Andrew A. Cunningham§, Alex D. Hyatt†, D. Earl Green¶, and Rick Speare‡
Author affiliations: *Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA;†Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization, Geelong, Victoria, Australia;‡School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia;§Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London, United Kingdom; and¶National Wildlife Health Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Figure 2. Scanning electron micrograph of digital skin of a wild frog (Litoria lesueuri, from Queensland, Australia) that died of cutaneous chytridiomycosis. Many cells within this area of the superficial layer of the epidermis contain mature sporangia, and unopened discharge tubes are visible protruding through infected cells. The skin was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde, postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated, critical-point-dried, sputter coated with gold, and examined with a JEOL JSM 840 scanning electron microscope at 5 kV. All specimens are from animals that were naturally infected and died due to chytridiomycosis in montane rain forest regions of Panama and Australia. Bar = 5 µm. Photo courtesy of L. Berger, reprinted with permission from A. Campbell (29).
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