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Volume 6, Number 6—December 2000


Mass Die-Off of Caspian Seals Caused by Canine Distemper Virus

Seamus Kennedy*Comments to Author , Thijs Kuiken†, Paul D. Jepson‡, Robert Deaville‡, Morag Forsyth§, Tom Barrett§, Marco W.G. van de Bildt†, Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus†, Tariel Eybatov¶, Callan Duck#, Aidyn Kydyrmanov**, Igor Mitrofanov††, and Susan Wilson‡‡
Author affiliations: *Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK; †Seal Rehabilitation and Research Center, Pieterburen, The Netherlands; ‡Institute of Zoology, Regents Park, London, UK; §Institute of Animal Health, Pirbright, Surrey, UK; ¶Geological Institute of the Azerbaijan Republic Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan; #Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St. Andrews, Fife, UK; **Laboratory of Virus Ecology, Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Almaty, Kazakhstan; ††Akademgorodok, Institute of Zoology, Almaty, Kazakhstan; ‡‡Caspian Environment Programme Ecotoxicology Project, Portaferry, Northern Ireland, UK

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Caspian seals tested for canine distemper virus infection, May-June, 2000

Animal no.LocationaDateRT-PCRIgMIgGIHC
1KAMay 3+++ND
2KAMay 3+++ND
4KAMay 4ND+++
5KAMay 4ND+++
6KAMay 4ND+++
8AZJune 2+---
9AZJune 2++++
10AZJune 4--+-
11AZJune 5+-+-
12AZJune 5--+-
13AZJune 5++++
14AZJune 5++++
15AZJune 7--+-
16TUJune 10+NDNDND

aKA = Kazakhstan; AZ = Azerbaijan; TU = Turkmenistan.
bRT-PCR = reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; IHC = immunohistochemical labeling; ; + = positive; - = negative; ND = not determined because sample lacking.

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