Lack of Evidence of Endogenous Avian Leukosis Virus and Endogenous Avian Retrovirus Transmission to Measles Mumps Rubella Vaccine Recipients
Althaf I. Hussain*, Vedapuri Shanmugam*, William M. Switzer*, Shirley X. Tsang*, Aly Fadly†, Donald Thea‡, Rita Helfand*, William J. Bellini*, Thomas M. Folks*, and Walid Heneine*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, East Lansing, Michigan, USA; ‡Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Figure 2. Representative results from polymerase chain reaction analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine recipients for endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV) (A) and avian leukosis virus (ALV) (B) proviral DNA sequences. The detection threshold of known copy numbers of the target sequences is shown in the righthand panels. NC, negative control, uninfected human peripheral blood lymphocytes; PC, positive control, human peripheral blood lymphocytes spiked with 1,000 copies of target sequence; Lanes 1-10, peripheral blood lymphocytes from MMR vaccine recipients.
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