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Volume 7, Number 2—April 2001
4th Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections

Prevention is Primary

Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene Practice: A Multidisciplinary Approach

Didier PittetComments to Author 
Author affiliation: University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland

Main Article

Table 3

Strategies for successful promotion of hand hygiene in hospitals

Parameter Tool for change Selected referencesa
Education Ea (M, S) 14,23,63,74,76
Routine observation and feedback S (E, M) 6,14,23,63,74,76
Engineering controls S 63
Make hand hygiene easy, convenient S 63,74,77,78
Make available alcohol-based hand rub S 63
Alcohol-based hand rub available in high-demand situations S 63,78
Patient education S (M) 79
Reminders in the workplace S 52,63
Administrative sanctions, rewards S 3,20
Change in hand hygiene agent S (E) 21,80
Promote, facilitate skin care for HCW hands S (E) 17,21,47,63
Obtain active participation at individual and institutional level E, M, S 46,63
Ensure institutional safety climate S (M) 46,63
Enhance individual and institutional self-efficacy S (E, M) 46,63
Avoid overcrowding, understaffing, excessive workload S 9,15,63,81,82
Combination of above strategies E, M, S 14,23,46,63,74

aE = education; M = motivation; S = system; HCW = health-care worker
bOnly selected references are listed; refer to more extensive reviews (10,30,46) for exhaustive reference lists.

Main Article

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