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Volume 9, Number 10—October 2003

Research

Hazards of Healthy Living: Bottled Water and Salad Vegetables as Risk Factors for Campylobacter Infection

Meirion R. Evans*Comments to Author , C. Donald Ribeiro†, and Roland L. Salmon‡
Author affiliations: *University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, United Kingdom; †Cardiff Public Health Laboratory, Cardiff, United Kingdom; ‡Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (Wales), Cardiff, United Kingdom

Main Article

Table 2

Frequency of food exposure, animal contact, leisure activities and medical history in campylobacter infected case-patients and non-case-patients

Exposure Case-patients (%)
(n=213) Non-case-patients (%) (n=1144) Crude ORa
(95% CI) Adjusted OR
(95% CI) p value
Food and drink





Lamb
47 (22.1)
282 (24.7)
0.87 (0.61 to 1.22)
0.67(0.45 to 0.99)
0.046
Frozen fish
53 (24.9)
341 (29.8)
0.78 (0.55 to 1.09)
0.64 (0.45 to 0.93)
0.020
Chicken
177 (83.1)
777 (67.9)
2.32 (1.60 to 3.43)
1.61 (1.03 to 2.50)
0.036
Eggs
141 (66.2)
606 (53.0)
1.74 (1.28 to 2.37)
1.35 (0.95 to 1.92)
0.096
Salad vegetables
159 (74.6)
635 (55.5)
2.36 (1.70 to 3.30)
1.73 (1.09 to 2.74)
0.019
Fresh or frozen berries
51 (23.9)
173 (15.1)
1.77 (1.23 to 2.51)
1.43 (0.95 to 2.13)
0.086
Milk delivered to the doorstep
29 (13.6)
215 (18.8)
0.68 (0.44 to 1.03)
0.60 (0.38 to 0.94)
0.026
Bottled water
114 (53.5)
420 (36.7)
1.98 (1.48 to 2.67)
1.39 (0.98 to 1.96)
0.062
Ate at a fried chicken outlet
22 (10.3)
51 (4.5)
2.47 (1.44 to 4.13)
1.82 (1.00 to 3.30)
0.050
Ate at a Chinese restaurant
23 (10.8)
114 (10.0)
1.09 (0.67 to 1.74)
0.58 (0.33 to 0.99)
0.048
Animal contact





Own a pet rabbit
7 (3.3)
89 (7.8)
0.40 (0.17 to 84)
0.46 (0.20 to 1.05)
0.066
Had contact with cows or calves
5 (2.3)
6 (0.5)
4.55 (1.27 to 15.74)
5.44 (1.05 to 28.1)
0.043
Leisure activities





Walking (>15 min)
162 (76.0)
712 (62.2)
1.93 (1.38 to 2.72)
1.92 (1.34 to 2.73)
<0.001
Medical history





History of lower bowel problems
21 (9.9)
197 (17.2)
0.53 (0.32 to 0.83)
0.55 (0.34 to 0.90)
0.018
Antibiotic in month before illness 11 (5.2) 160 (14.0) 0.34 (0.17 to 0.61) 0.34 (0.18 to 0.65) 0.001

aAdjusted for potential confounders within each exposure group; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

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