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Volume 9, Number 2—February 2003

Research

Risk Factors for Sporadic Giardiasis: a Case-Control Study in Southwestern England

James M. Stuart*Comments to Author , Hilary J. Orr*, Fiona G Warburton†, Sugarthinny Jeyakanth†, Carolyn Pugh‡, Ian Morris‡, Joyshri Sarangi§, and Gordon Nichols¶
Author affiliations: *PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (Southwest), Gloucester, U.K.; †PHLS Statistics Unit, London, U.K.; ‡Public Health Laboratory, Bristol, U.K.; §Avon Health Authority, Bristol, U.K.; ¶PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, U.K.

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Table 2

Single variable analysis of risk factors for giardiasis: recreational water exposures

Swimming and related activities by location and frequency: Cases (n=192) Controls
(n=492) Matched odds ratio (95% CI)a p value
Swimming anywhere
No
123
406


Yes
66
85
3.9 (2.2 to 7.1)
<0.0001






Swallowing water while swimming
No
132
428


Yes
26
33
6.6 (2.5 to 17.6)
0.0001






Frequency of swimming
0
123
406


1–2
29
44


3–4
22
19


5–6
6
10


7–8
4
11
1.3 (1.1 to 1.5)b
0.002
In chlorinated water





Swimming
No
149
434


Yes
43
58
2.7 (1.4 to 5.0)
0.002






    Swallowed water
No
174
464


Yes
18
28
2.4 (0.9 to 6.0)
0.07






    Head immersion
No
156
443


Yes
36
49
2.5 (1.3 to 5.0)
0.009






In fresh water
No
172
469



Yes
20
23
5.1 (2.0 to 12.5)
0.0003






    Swallowed water
No
191
491


Yes
1
1
3.9 (0.1 to 136)
0.4






    Head immersion
No
188
489


Yes
3
2
26.6 (1.2 to 572)
0.02






In sea water No
187
486


Yes 5 6 1.2 (0.2 to 8.4) 0.9

aCI, confidence intervals.
bFor each additional visit.

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