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Volume 9, Number 2—February 2003


Risk Factors for Sporadic Giardiasis: a Case-Control Study in Southwestern England

James M. Stuart*Comments to Author , Hilary J. Orr*, Fiona G Warburton†, Sugarthinny Jeyakanth†, Carolyn Pugh‡, Ian Morris‡, Joyshri Sarangi§, and Gordon Nichols¶
Author affiliations: *PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (Southwest), Gloucester, U.K.; †PHLS Statistics Unit, London, U.K.; ‡Public Health Laboratory, Bristol, U.K.; §Avon Health Authority, Bristol, U.K.; ¶PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, U.K.

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Table 3

Multivariable analysis of risk factors for giardiasis

Exposure Odds ratio
(95% CI)a p value
Swallowed water while swimming
6.2 (2.3 to 16.6)
Recreational fresh water contact
5.5 (1.9 to 15.9)
Each additional glass of tap water consumed per day
1.3 (1.1 to 1.5)
Ate lettuce
2.2 (1.2 to 4.3)
Ate ice cream 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) 0.002

aCI, confidence intervals.

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