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Volume 9, Number 2—February 2003


Influence of Role Models and Hospital Design on the Hand Hygiene of Health-Care Workers

Mary G. Lankford*†, Teresa R. Zembower‡, William E. Trick§, Donna M. Hacek*†, Gary A. Noskin*†‡, and Lance R. Peterson*†‡Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Northwestern Prevention Epicenter, Chicago, Illinois, USA; †Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA; ‡Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA; §Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

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Table 4

Effect of behavior of other health-care workers in the room on health-care workers’ hand-hygiene compliance, by multivariate analysis, Northwestern Memorial Hospitala

Variableb Odds ratio 
(95% confidence interval) p value
Room entry alone (n=291)

In a room when a peer performs hand hygiene (n=48)
1.1 (0.6 to 2.3)
In a room when a higher ranking person performs hand hygiene (n=64)
0.8 (0.4 to 1.3)
Highest ranking person in the room (n=144)
0.6 (0.4 to 1.0)
In a room when peer does not perform hand hygiene (n=41)
0.4 (0.2 to 1.0)
In a room when higher ranking person does not perform hand hygiene (n=111) 0.2 (0.1 to 0.5) <0.001

aAdjusted for variables significantly associated with increased hand-hygiene compliance, i.e., health-care worker glove use, hand hygiene on room entry, invasive procedures, patient contact, and old versus new hospital.

bNurses and physicians accounted for most observations for all categories.

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