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Volume 9, Number 6—June 2003

Dispatch

Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Kabul, Afghanistan

Richard Reithinger*†Comments to Author , Mohammad Mohsen†, Khoksar Aadil†, Majeed Sidiqi†, Panna Erasmus†, and Paul G. Coleman*
Author affiliations: *London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, U.K.; †HealthNet International, Peshawar, Pakistan

Main Article

Table

Within- and between-household clustering of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions and scars, Kabul City, Afghanistana

Explanatory variables   Outcome variableb
Lesion Scar
Within-household prevalence
OR (CI)
OR (CI)
          Prevalence of lesions in other household members
132.3 (67.3 to 259.8)
p<0.001
3.728 (2.799 to 4.964)
p<0.001
          Prevalence of scars in other household members
1.988 (1.500 to 2.635)
p<0.001
48.24 (41.79 to 55.68)
p<0.001
Between-household prevalence


          Prevalence of lesions in nearest neighbor households
2.323 (0.984 to 5.486)
NS
1.585 (1.036 to 1.353)
p<0.05
          Prevalence of scars in nearest neighbor households
1.376 (0.957 to 1.980)
NS
1.184 (1.036 to 1.353)
p<0.05
Other


          Age
1.005 (1.000 to 1.009)
p<0.05
1.013 (1.011 to 1.015)
p<0.001
          Sex (female relative to male)
1.383 (1.177 to 1.626)
p<0.001
1.186 (1.108 to 1.270)
p<0.001
          Sampling areac
Chi square=213.6, d.f.=89
p<0.001
Chi square=330.8, d.f.=89
p<0.001
Overall model fit Pseudo R2 = 11.89%
p<0.0001 Pseudo R2=22.72
p<0.0001

aAbbreviations used: OR, odds ratio; CI, 95% confidence intervals; d.f., degrees of freedom; NS, not significant.
bThe statistical model controlled for age (in years), sex, and sampling area (a total of 90 areas), while the standard errors were adjusted for sampling of persons at the household level.
cThe overall significance of the variable is shown rather than the ORs for the 90 different sampling areas.

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