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Volume 9, Number 8—August 2003

Research

Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease: Risk Factors for Adults

Stephanie H. Factor*†Comments to Author , Orin S. Levine‡, Benjamin Schwartz*, Lee H. Harrison§, Monica M. Farley¶, Allison McGeer#, and Anne Schuchat*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †New York Academy of Medicine, New York, New York, USA; ‡National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; §Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; ¶Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; #Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Table 3

Individual risk factor and multivariable analysis for risk factors for invasive group A streptococcal disease among case-patients and control subjects matched on age and zip code, 18–44 years of age, Atlanta, Baltimore, Toronto, 1997–1999a,b,c

Univariate analysis Multivariable analysis
Variable
Case-patients
(n=48)
Control subjects
(n=115)
OR (95% CI)
p value
OR (95% CI)
p value
Number of
persons
living in the
home
3+
1–2
38 (79)
10 (21)
80 (70)
35 (30)
1.91 (0.81 to 4.47)
0.14


Smoke expo-
sure
Current smoker with passive smoke exposure
6 (13)
17 (15)
1.04 (0.32 to 3.37)
0.95


Current smoker without passive smoke exposure
12 (25)
16 (14)
2.35 (0.85 to 6.48)
0.86


Passive smoke exposure
6 (13)
12 (10)
1.82 (0.57 to 5.82)
0.31



No smoke exposure
24 (50)
70 (61)
1.00



Any child <18
years living in the
home
Yes
No
30 (63)
18 (37)
68 (59)
47 (41)
1.25 (0.59 to 2.64)
0.57


>1 Child with sore
throat in the family
Yes
No
7 (15)
41 (85)
7 (6)
108 (94)
2.75 (0.87 to 8.70)
0.09
4.93 (1.24 to 19.68)
0.02
Diabetes mellitis
Yes
No
6 (13)
40 (87)
5 (4)
107 (96)
2.11 (0.63 to 7.10)
0.23


Cancer
Yes
No
0
47 (100)
3 (3)
108 (97)
0
0.99


Varicella
Yes
No
0
48 (100)
0
115 (100)




Cirrhosis
Yes
No
0
48 (100)
0
115 (100)




Paralysis
Yes
No
1 (2)
47 (98)
0
115 (100)




Regular NSAID
use
Yes
No
11 (26)
32 (74)
31 (28)
78 (72)
.97 (0.42 to 2.23)
0.93


New use of
NSAIDs
Yes
No
9 (19)
34 (81)
10 (9)
100 (91)
2.15 (0.79 to 5.80)
0.13


Use of cortico-
steroids
Yes
No
0
44 (100)
3 (3)
109 (97)
0
0.99


HIV+
Yes
No
7 (15)
39 (85)
1 (1)
110 (99)
12.66 (1.47 to 108.92)
0.02
15.01 (1.09 to 207.30)
.04
Ever injected
drugs
Yes
No
10 (22)
36 (78)
3 (3)
110 (97)
11.80 (2.46 to 56.66)
0.002
14.71 (2.52 to 85.70)
.003
Alcohol use
(based on
CAGE questions)d
CAGE score 0
CAGE score 1
CAGE score 2
CAGE score 3
CAGE score 4 28 (72)
5 (13)
0
5 (13)
1 (3) 57 (68)
22 (26)
3 (4)
2 (2)
0 1.14 (0.69 to 1.89) 0.62

aOR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; NSAID, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug.
bDue to missing data, for some variables, data for fewer than 48 case-patients and 115 control subjects were available.
cAnalyses controlled for race and sex.
dSource (7).

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