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Volume 10, Number 11—November 2004

Research

Evaluating Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs

Al V. Taira*, Christopher P. Neukermans†, and Gillian D. Sanders†‡Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA; †Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA; ‡Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA

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Table 2

Total discounted healthcare costs, total discounted life expectancy in years, and total quality-adjusted discounted lifetime expectancy in years are presented for prevaccination, and for female-only and male + female vaccination scenarios.

Outcome No vaccination HPV-16/18 vaccination
Female-onlya Female + maleb
Cost, $ 40,423 40,667 40,929
Incremental cost, $ 244 261
Life expectancy, y 28.7975 28.8112 28.8117
Incremental life expectancy, d 5.0 0.18
Quality-adjusted life expectancy, y 27.7422 27.7590 27.7596
Incremental quality-adjusted life expectancy, d 6.1 0.21
Incremental cost-effectiveness
$ per life-year 17,802 534,317
$ per quality-adjusted life-year 14,583 442,039
% reduction in lifetime cervical cancer cases 61.8 2.2

aIncremental to no vaccination strategy.
bIncremental to a female-only vaccination strategy.

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