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Volume 10, Number 11—November 2004
THEME ISSUE
ICEID & ICWID 2004

International Conference on Women and Infectious Diseases (ICWID)

Sexual Power and HIV Risk, South Africa

Audrey E. Pettifor*Comments to Author , Diana M. Measham†‡, Helen V. Rees*, and Nancy S. Padian‡
Author affiliations: *University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; †University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA; ‡University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

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Table 2

Weighted frequencies and results of chi-square tests for relationship control factors, HIV risk behavior, and sociodemographic factors by HIV status among sexually experienced women 15–24 years of age, South Africa, 2003a

Characteristic HIV negative (78.9%) HIV positive (21.1%) Chi-square p value
High relationship control (score 0–2) with current partner
Low relationship control (score 3–4) with current partner 71.7
28.3 75.9
24.1 0.31
Last partner in past 12 mo forced to have sex
Last partner in past 12 mo did not force to have sex 3.9
96.1 3.6
96.4 0.82
Mean condom use self-efficacy score (0 low to 3 high)b 2.35 2.38 0.68
Transactional sex with last partner in past 12 mo
No transactional sex with last partner in past 12 mo 1.3
98.7 1.5
98.5 0.89
Last partner in past 12 mo >10 y older
Last partner in past 12 mo <10 y older 5.1
94.9 7.5
92.5 0.08
Did not always use a condom with last partner in past 12 mo
Always used a condom with last partner in past 12 mo 69.6
30.4 78.7
21.3 0.01
Age at sexual debut <14 y
Age at sexual debut >14 y 7.8
92.2 7.7
92.3 0.93
>1 lifetime sexual partners
1 lifetime sexual partner 51.1
48.9 67.7
32.4 0.03
Sex in past month with last partner in past 12 mo <5
Sex in past month with last partner in past 12 mo >5 90.3
9.7 89.1
10.9 0.49
Talked about condom use with last partner in past 12 mo
Did not talk about condom use with last partner in past 12 mo 80.2
19.8 76.4
23.6 0.24
Perceive self to be at high risk for HIV infection
Perceive self to be at low or no risk for HIV infection 38.3
61.7 39.0
61.0 0.89
Age 15–19 y
Age 20–24 y 40.4
59.6 19.0
81.0 < 0.001
Completed high school
Did not complete high school 29.3
70.7 18.7
81.3 < 0.001
Live in a rural area
Live in an urban area 48.6
51.4 42.6
57.4 0.14
Race Black African
Other race 85.9
14.1 97.9
2.1 < 0.001
Religion very important in everyday life
Religion not very important in everyday life 86.5
13.5 85.9
14.1 0.8
Married
Single 4.9
95.1 2.3
97.7 0.002

aSource: National Survey of HIV and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young People Age 15–24, South Africa, 2003.
bt test for differences between means (tested with the lincom command in STATA for svymeans).

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