Norovirus and Foodborne Disease, United States, 1991–2000
Marc-Alain Widdowson* , Alana Sulka*, Sandra N. Bulens*†, R. Suzanne Beard*, Sandra S. Chaves†‡, Roberta Hammond§, Ellen D.P. Salehi¶, Ellen Swanson#, Jessica Totaro**, Ray Woron††, Paul S. Mead*, Joseph S. Bresee*, Stephan S. Monroe*, and Roger I. Glass*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ‡Department of Human Resources, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; §Bureau of Community Environmental Health, Tallahassee, Florida, USA; ¶Ohio Department of Health, Columbus, Ohio, USA; #Department of Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; **Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; ††New York State Department of Health, Troy, New York, USA
Figure 2. Norovirus-confirmed foodborne outbreaks by state, United States, 1998–2000 (N = 305).Years in parenthesis indicate first year a state public health laboratory developed molecular assays for norovirus (as of December 2001). *Includes District of Columbia.
1Efforts in 1998 to improve outbreak reporting resulted in more outbreaks being retrospectively attributed to this period. The current figures for 1993 to 1997 are 65 (2%) of 3,257 outbreaks attributable to NoV and 67% of unknown etiology.
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