Volume 11, Number 1—January 2005
Volume 11, Number 1—January 2005 PDF Version [PDF - 5.91 MB - 195 pages]
PDF Version [PDF - 48 KB - 5 pages]
P. Y. Riley and B. B. ChomelView Abstract
Exotic pets, including hedgehogs, have become popular in recent years among pet owners, especially in North America. Such animals can carry and introduce zoonotic agents, a fact well illustrated by the recent outbreak of monkeypox in pet prairie dogs. We reviewed known and potential zoonotic diseases that could be carried and transmitted by pet hedgehogs or when rescuing and caring for wild-caught hedgehogs.
Border Screening for SARS
PDF Version [PDF - 183 KB - 5 pages]
R. K. St. John et al.View Abstract
With the rapid international spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) from March through May 2003, Canada introduced various measures to screen airplane passengers at selected airports for symptoms and signs of SARS. The World Health Organization requested that all affected areas screen departing passengers for SARS symptoms. In spite of intensive screening, no SARS cases were detected. SARS has an extremely low prevalence, and the positive predictive value of screening is essentially zero. Canadian screening results raise questions about the effectiveness of available screening measures for SARS at international borders.
Capacity of State and Territorial Health Agencies to Prevent Foodborne Illness
PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 6 pages]
R. E. Hoffman et al.View Abstract
The capacity of state and territorial health departments to investigate foodborne diseases was assessed by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists from 2001 to 2002 with a self-administered, web-based survey. Forty-eight health departments responded (47 states and 1 territory). The primary reason for not conducting more active case surveillance of enteric disease is lack of staff, while the primary reasons for not investigating foodborne disease outbreaks are limited staff and delayed notification of the outbreak. Sixty-four percent of respondents have the capacity to conduct analytic epidemiologic investigations. States receiving Emerging Infections Program (EIP) funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention more often reported having a dedicated foodborne disease epidemiologist and the capability to perform analytic studies than non-EIP states. We conclude that by addressing shortages in the number of dedicated personnel and reducing delays in reporting, the capacity of state health departments to respond to foodborne disease can be improved.
Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Linxian, China
PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 5 pages]
M. Zhang et al.View Abstract
Bloodborne viruses may have spread in rural China during the past 25 years, but population-based prevalence estimates are lacking. We examined the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV type 1 (HIV-1) among residents of Linxian, a rural community in Henan Province. In 2000, blood was collected from participants (>55 years of age) who had enrolled in a population-based nutritional intervention trial in 1985. We randomly selected 500 participants for HCV testing and 200 participants for HIV-1 testing. For HCV, 48 (9.6%) of 500 participants were positive by enzyme immunoassay and recombinant immunoblot assay (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.0%–12.2%), and prevalence was lowest in the most geographically isolated participants. Among the HCV-infected participants, 42 had a specimen available from1985, of which 16 (38.1%) were positive for HCV. For HIV-1, 0/200 participants were positive. We conclude that HCV is now a common infection among older adults in Linxian, China.
Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
PDF Version [PDF - 215 KB - 8 pages]
A. Abbo et al.View Abstract
To understand the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and define individual risk factors for MDR, we used epidemiologic methods, performed organism typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and conducted a matched case-control retrospective study. We investigated 118 patients, on 27 wards, in whom MDR A. baumannii was isolated from clinical cultures. Each case-patient had a control without MDR A. baumannii and was matched for hospital length of stay, ward, and calendar time. The epidemiologic investigation found small clusters of up to 6 patients each with no common identified source. Ten different PFGE clones were found, of which 2 dominated. The PFGE pattern differed within temporospatial clusters, and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns varied within and between clones. Multivariate analysis identified the following significant risk factors: male sex, cardiovascular disease, having undergone mechanical ventilation, and having been treated with antimicrobial drugs (particularly metronidazole). Penicillins were protective. The complex epidemiology may explain why the emergence of MDR A. baumannii is difficult to control.
Hybrid Vibrio vulnificus
PDF Version [PDF - 357 KB - 6 pages]
N. Bisharat et al.View Abstract
The recent emergence of the human-pathogenic Vibrio vulnificus in Israel was investigated by using multilocus genotype data and modern molecular evolutionary analysis tools. We show that this pathogen is a hybrid organism that evolved by the hybridization of the genomes from 2 distinct and independent populations. These findings provide clear evidence of how hybridization between 2 existing and nonpathogenic forms has apparently led to the emergence of an epidemic infectious disease caused by this pathogenic variant. This novel observation shows yet another way in which epidemic organisms arise.
Hypersensitivity to Ticks and Lyme Disease Risk
PDF Version [PDF - 215 KB - 6 pages]
G. Burke et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Persons who report frequent tick-associated itch are less likely to contract Lyme disease than those who do not.
Although residents of Lyme disease–endemic regions describe frequent exposure to ticks, Lyme disease develops in relatively few. To determine whether people who experience cutaneous hypersensitivity against tick bite have fewer episodes of Lyme disease than those who do not, we examined several factors that might restrict the incidence of Lyme disease among residents of Block Island, Rhode Island. Of 1,498 study participants, 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 23%–31%) reported >1 tick bites, and 17% (95% CI 13%–21%) reported itch associated with tick bite in the previous year. Borrelia burgdorferi infected 23% (95% CI 20%–26%) of 135 nymphal Ixodes scapularis (I. dammini) ticks. The likelihood of Lyme disease infection decreased with >3 reports of tick-associated itch (odds ratio 0.14, 95% CI 0.94–0.03, p = 0.01). Prior exposure to uninfected vector ticks protects residents of disease-endemic sites from Lyme disease.
Demand for Prophylaxis after Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax Cases, 2001
PDF Version [PDF - 110 KB - 6 pages]
E. A. Belongia et al.View Abstract
Media reports suggested increased public demand for anthrax prophylaxis after the intentional anthrax cases in 2001, but the magnitude of anthrax-related prescribing in unaffected regions was not assessed. We surveyed a random sample of 400 primary care clinicians in Minnesota and Wisconsin to assess requests for and provision of anthrax-related antimicrobial agents. The survey was returned by 239 (60%) of clinicians, including 210 in outpatient practice. Fifty-eight (28%) of those in outpatient practice received requests for anthrax-related antimicrobial agents, and 9 (4%) dispensed them. Outpatient fluoroquinolone use in both states was also analyzed with regression models to compare predicted and actual use in October and November 2001. Fluoroquinolone use as a proportion of total antimicrobial use was not elevated, and anthrax concerns accounted for an estimated 0.3% of all fluoroquinolone prescriptions. Most physicians in Minnesota and Wisconsin managed anthrax-related requests without dispensing antimicrobial agents.
Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil, 1981–2002
PDF Version [PDF - 165 KB - 6 pages]
J. B. Siqueira et al.
Genetic Background of Escherichia coli and Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase Type
PDF Version [PDF - 180 KB - 8 pages]
To assess the implication of the genetic background of Escherichia coli strains in the emergence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL), 55 TEM-, 52 CTX-M-, and 22 SHV-type ESBL-producing clinical isolates involved in various extraintestinal infections or colonization were studied in terms of phylogenetic group, virulence factor (VF) content (pap, sfa/foc, hly, and aer genes), and fluoroquinolone resistance. A factorial analysis of correspondence showed that SHV type, and to a lesser extent TEM type, were preferentially observed in B2 phylogenetic group strains that exhibited numerous VFs but were fluoroquinolone-susceptible, whereas the newly emerged CTX-M type was associated with the D phylogenetic group strains that lacked VF but were fluoroquinolone-resistant. Thus, the emergence of ESBL-producing E. coli seems to be the result of complex interactions between the type of ESBL, genetic background of the strain, and selective pressures in ecologic niches.
Mycobacterium haemophilum and Lymphadenitis in Children
PDF Version [PDF - 218 KB - 7 pages]
L. E. Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet et al.View Abstract
Infections associated with Mycobacterium haemophilum are underdiagnosed because specific culture methods required for its recovery are not applied routinely. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology on fine needle aspirates and biopsied specimens from 89 children with cervicofacial lymphadenitis, we assessed the importance of M. haemophilum. Application of a Mycobacterium genus–specific real-time PCR in combination with amplicon sequencing and a M. haemophilum–specific PCR resulted in the recognition of M. haemophilum as the causative agent in 16 (18%) children with cervicofacial lymphadenitis. Mycobacterium avium was the most frequently found species (56%), and M. haemophilum was the second most commonly recognized pathogen. Real-time PCR results were superior to culture because only 9 (56%) of the 16 diagnosed M. haemophilum infections were positive by culture.
HEPA/Vaccine Plan for Indoor Anthrax Remediation
PDF Version [PDF - 195 KB - 8 pages]
L. M. Wein et al.View SummaryView Abstract
A mathematical model suggests that a HEPA/vaccine approach is viable for most buildings after a large-scale anthrax attack.
We developed a mathematical model to compare 2 indoor remediation strategies in the aftermath of an outdoor release of 1.5 kg of anthrax spores in lower Manhattan. The 2 strategies are the fumigation approach used after the 2001 postal anthrax attack and a HEPA/vaccine plan, which relies on HEPA vacuuming, HEPA air cleaners, and vaccination of reoccupants. The HEPA/vaccine approach leads to few anthrax cases among reoccupants if applied to all but the most heavily contaminated buildings, and recovery is much faster than under the decades-long fumigation plan. Only modest environmental sampling is needed. A surge capacity of 10,000 to 20,000 Hazmat workers is required to perform remediation within 6 to 12 months and to avoid permanent mass relocation. Because of the possibility of a campaign of terrorist attacks, serious consideration should be given to allowing or encouraging voluntary self-service cleaning of lightly contaminated rooms by age-appropriate, vaccinated, partially protected (through masks or hoods) reoccupants or owners.
Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections, Clinical Manifestations and Their Predictors, Montreal, 1995–2002
PDF Version [PDF - 96 KB - 6 pages]
M. Hollm-Delgado et al.View Abstract
We identified 306 invasive group A streptococcal infections (IGASI) by passive population-based surveillance in Montreal, Canada, from 1995 to 2001. The average yearly reported incidence was 2.4 per 100,000 persons, with a 14% death rate. Among clinical manifestations, incidence of pneumonia increased from 0.06 per 100,000 in 1995 to 0.50 per 100,000 in 2000. Over a span of 7 years, the odds of developing pneumonia increased (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–1.5), while they decreased for soft-tissue infections (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.7–1.0). Serotypes M1 and M3 accounted for 30% of IGASI. However, neither serotype was significantly associated with specific clinical manifestations, which suggests that manifestation development among IGASI might be attributable to host or environmental factors rather than the pathogen. In our study, these factors included age, gender, underlying medical conditions, and living environment, yet none explained temporal changes in risk for pneumonia and soft-tissue infections.
Malassezia pachydermatis Carriage in Dog Owners
PDF Version [PDF - 148 KB - 6 pages]
D. O. Morris et al.View Abstract
Yeasts of the genus Malassezia serve as both commensal microorganisms and pathogens on the skin of humans and domestic animals. Although rare, cases of life-threatening fungemia in people have been attributed to Malassezia pachydermatis, for which dogs are a natural host. Zoonotic transfer has been documented from dogs to immunocompromised patients by healthcare workers who own dogs. We investigated the role of pet dogs as risk factors for mechanical carriage of M. pachydermatis on human hands. Dogs and their owners were sampled as pairs, by fungal culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although fungal culture was not a reliable means by which to detect carriage of the yeast on human hands, PCR identified M. pachydermatis on most (≈93%) human participants. Human carriage of ubiquitous opportunistic pathogens such as M. pachydermatis underscores the importance of good hand hygiene by healthcare professionals.
Anti–SARS-CoV Immunoglobulin G in Healthcare Workers, Guangzhou, China
PDF Version [PDF - 249 KB - 6 pages]
W. Chen et al.View Abstract
To determine the prevalence of inapparent infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among healthcare workers, we performed a serosurvey to test for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) among 1,147 healthcare workers in 3 hospitals that admitted SARS patients in mid-May 2003. Among them were 90 healthcare workers with SARS. As a reference group, 709 healthcare workers who worked in 2 hospitals that never admitted any SARS patients were similarly tested. The seroprevalence rate was 88.9% (80/90) for healthcare workers with SARS and 1.4% (15/1,057) for healthcare workers who were apparently healthy. The seroprevalence in the reference group was 0.4% (3/709). These findings suggest that inapparent infection is uncommon. Low level of immunity among unaffected healthcare workers reinforces the need for adequate personal protection and other infection control measures in hospitals to prevent future epidemics.
Norovirus and Foodborne Disease, United States, 1991–2000
PDF Version [PDF - 203 KB - 8 pages]
M. Widdowson et al.View Abstract
Efforts to prevent foodborne illness target bacterial pathogens, yet noroviruses (NoV) are suspected to be the most common cause of gastroenteritis. New molecular assays allow for better estimation of the role of NoV in foodborne illness. We analyzed 8,271 foodborne outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1991 to 2000 and additional data from 6 states. The proportion of NoV-confirmed outbreaks increased from 1% in 1991 to 12% in 2000. However, from 1998 to 2000, 76% of NoV outbreaks were reported by only 11 states. In 2000, an estimated 50% of foodborne outbreaks in 6 states were attributable to NoV. NoV outbreaks were larger than bacterial outbreaks (median persons affected: 25 versus 15), and 10% of affected persons sought medical care; 1% were hospitalized. More widespread use of molecular assays will permit better estimates of the role of NoV illness and help direct efforts to control foodborne illness.
Human Parechovirus-3 and Neonatal Infections
PDF Version [PDF - 174 KB - 5 pages]
G. Boivin et al.View Abstract
A third serotype of human parechovirus (HPeV) has been recently isolated from stool specimens of a young Japanese child with transient paralysis. We report 3 additional cases of neonatal sepsis caused by HPeV-3 in the fall of 2001 in Canadian infants 7–27 days old. All children were hospitalized with high fever, erythematous rash, and tachypnea for a median of 5 days. The viruses isolated from nasopharyngeal aspirates grew slowly on tertiary monkey kidney cells and were successfully passaged on Vero cells. The predicted amino acid identity of the VP0-VP3-VP1 region of the three viruses was 74.6%–74.8%, 73.4%–73.6%, and 97.0%–97.1% when compared to HPeV-1, -2, and –3 prototype strains, respectively. Although different, our isolates were closely related; amino acid identity was 99.6%–100% for the latter three proteins.
A Novel Paramyxovirus?
PDF Version [PDF - 332 KB - 5 pages]
C. F. Basler et al.View Abstract
In public databases, we identified sequences reported as human genes expressed in kidney mesangial cells. The similarity of these genes to paramyxovirus matrix, fusion, and phosphoprotein genes suggests that they are derived from a novel paramyxovirus. These genes are sufficiently unique to suggest the existence of a novel paramyxovirus genus.
Estimate of Illnesses from Salmonella Enteritidis in Eggs, United States, 2000
PDF Version [PDF - 177 KB - 3 pages]
C. M. Schroeder et al.View Abstract
Results from our model suggest that eating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis–contaminated shell eggs caused 182,060 illnesses in the United States during 2000. Uncertainty about the estimate ranged from 81,535 (5th percentile) to 276,500 illnesses (95th percentile). Our model provides 1 approach for estimating foodborne illness and quantifying estimate uncertainty.
Mosquitoborne Viruses, Czech Republic, 2002
PDF Version [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]
Z. Hubálek et al.View Abstract
Specimens from residents (n = 497) of an area affected by the 2002 flood were examined serologically for mosquitoborne viruses. Antibodies were detected against Tahyna (16%), Sindbis (1%), and Batai (0.2%) viruses, but not West Nile virus. An examination of paired serum samples showed 1 Tahyna bunyavirus (California group) infection.
Mycobacterium lentiflavum Infection in Immunocompetent Patient
PDF Version [PDF - 138 KB - 4 pages]
C. Molteni et al.View Abstract
Mycobacterium lentiflavum is a recently described nontuberculous mycobacterium that has mainly clinical importance in young children with cervical lymphadenitis and in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of chronic pulmonary infection in an immunocompetent patient. Our observation confirms clinical, diagnostic, and treatment difficulties in the management of M. lentiflavum infection.
G, N, and P Gene-based Analysis of Chandipura Viruses, India
PDF Version [PDF - 145 KB - 4 pages]
V. A. Arankalle et al.View Abstract
An encephalitis outbreak in 2003 in children from India was attributed to Chandipura virus. Sequence analyses of G, N, and P genes showed 95.6%–97.6% nucleotide identity with the 1965 isolate (G gene, 7–11 amino acid changes); N and P genes were highly conserved.
Emergent Strain of Human Adenovirus Endemic in Iowa
PDF Version [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
G. C. Gray et al.View Abstract
We evaluated 76 adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) isolates collected in Iowa from 1992 to 2002 and found that genome type Ad7d2 became increasingly prevalent. By 2002, it had supplanted all other Ad7 genome types. The association of Ad7d2 with severe illness and death calls for heightened public health concern.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus Diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004
PDF Version [PDF - 75 KB - 3 pages]
N. González-Escalona et al.View Abstract
Analysis of clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from outbreaks in Chile in the cities of Puerto Montt in 2004 and in Antofagasta in 1998 indicated that 23 of 24 isolates from Puerto Montt and 19 of 20 from Antofagasta belonged to the pandemic clonal complex that emerged in Southeast Asia in 1996.
Plasmodium vivax Malaria
PDF Version [PDF - 96 KB - 3 pages]
D. K. Kochar et al.View Abstract
We report 11 cases of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bikaner (western India). Patients exhibited cerebral malaria, renal failure, circulatory collapse, severe anemia, hemoglobinurea, abnormal bleeding, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and jaundice. Peripheral blood microscopy, parasite antigen–based assays, and parasite 18s rRNA gene–based polymerase chain reaction showed the presence of P. vivax and absence of P. falciparum.
SARS Clinical Features, United States, 2003
PDF Version [PDF - 181 KB - 4 pages]
P. Srikantiah et al.View Abstract
We compared the clinical features of 8 U.S. case-patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) to 65 controls who tested negative for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Shortness of breath, vomiting, diarrhea, progressive bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph, and need for supplemental oxygen were significantly associated with confirmed SARS-CoV infection.
Melioidosis in Mauritius
PDF Version [PDF - 52 KB - 2 pages]
M. I. Issack et al.View Abstract
We report the first case of human melioidosis from Mauritius, where Burkholderia pseudomallei has never been isolated. The patient was immunocompromised, had never traveled abroad, and had a history of regular exposure to mud. She became ill at a time when rainfall was higher than the monthly average.
Distribution and Characteristics of Escherichia coli Clonal Group A
PDF Version [PDF - 195 KB - 5 pages]
J. R. Johnson et al.View Abstract
Among 1,102 recent Escherichia coli clinical isolates, clonal group A was identified in 17 of 20 (U.S. and non-U.S.) geographic locales, mainly among U.S. isolates (9% vs. 3%; p < 0.001) and those resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (10% vs. 1.7%; p < 0.001). The extensive antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of clonal group A may underlie its recent widespread emergence.
Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection in High School Football Players, New York City, 2003
PDF Version [PDF - 137 KB - 4 pages]
S. E. Manning et al.View Abstract
After being notified that 2 high school football teammates were hospitalized with confirmed or suspected invasive group A streptococcal infections, we conducted an investigation of possible spread among other team members. This investigation highlights a need for guidelines on management of streptococcal and other infectious disease outbreaks in team sport settings.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype, Northern Malawi
PDF Version [PDF - 194 KB - 4 pages]
J. R. Glynn et al.View Abstract
In a 7-year population-based study in Malawi, we showed that Beijing genotype tuberculosis (TB) increased as a proportion of TB cases. All the Beijing genotype strains were fully drug sensitive. Contact histories, TB type, and case-fatality rates were similar for Beijing and non-Beijing genotype TB.
Norovirus Transmission on Cruise Ship
PDF Version [PDF - 182 KB - 4 pages]
E. T. Isakbaeva et al.View Abstract
We describe an investigation of a norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak aboard a cruise ship affecting 6 consecutive cruises and the use of sequence analysis to determine modes of virus transmission. Noroviruses (NoV), are the most common cause of infectious acute gastroenteritis and are transmitted feco-orally through food and water, directly from person to person and by environmental contamination (1). These viruses are often responsible for protracted outbreaks in closed settings, such as cruise ships, nursing homes, and hospitals (2,3).
Serologic Evidence of Human and Swine Influenza in Mayan Persons
PDF Version [PDF - 45 KB - 3 pages]
G. Ayora-Talavera et al.View Abstract
Antibodies against influenza viruses were detected in 115 serum samples from indigenous Mayan persons from Kochol, Yucatán. Seropositivity rates were 26.9% to A/Bayern/7/95, 40.8% to A/Sydney/5/97, 1.7% to A/Swine/Wisconsin/238/97, and 79.1% to A/Swine/Minnesota/593/99. This report is the first in Mexico of the prevalence of antibodies to swine influenza virus in humans.
Occupational Health Response to SARS
PDF Version [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
D. Koh et al.
SARS-CoV Sampling from 3 Portals
T. R. Tong
Tracing SARS-Coronavirus Variant with Large Genomic Deletion
PDF Version [PDF - 70 KB - 3 pages]
R. W. Chiu et al.
Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Java
PDF Version [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
J. Threlfall et al.
1990s Vibrio cholerae Epidemic, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 23 KB - 2 pages]
A. C. Vicente and A. M. Coelho
Fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella Paratyphi A
PDF Version [PDF - 41 KB - 3 pages]
T. Adachi et al.
Pygmy Populations Seronegative for Marburg Virus
PDF Version [PDF - 108 KB - 4 pages]
M. Borchert et al.
PDF Version [PDF - 71 KB - 3 pages]
C. Wang et al.
Kytococcus schroeteri Endocarditis
PDF Version [PDF - 35 KB - 2 pages]
C. Le Brun et al.
Viral Gastroenteritis in Mongolian Infants
PDF Version [PDF - 42 KB - 3 pages]
G. S. Hansman et al.
Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Finland
PDF Version [PDF - 35 KB - 2 pages]
J. Mäkinen et al.
Books and Media
Real-Time PCR: An Essential Guide
PDF Version [PDF - 20 KB - 2 pages]
Textbook–Atlas of Intestinal Infection in AIDS
PDF Version [PDF - 15 KB - 1 page]
M. J. Blaser
Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance
PDF Version [PDF - 118 KB - 2 pages]
J. W. Buehler
About the Cover
- Page created: April 25, 2012
- Page last updated: May 04, 2012
- Page last reviewed: May 04, 2012
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
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