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Volume 11, Number 1—January 2005

Research

Norovirus and Foodborne Disease, United States, 1991–2000

Marc-Alain Widdowson*Comments to Author , Alana Sulka*, Sandra N. Bulens*†, R. Suzanne Beard*, Sandra S. Chaves†‡, Roberta Hammond§, Ellen D.P. Salehi¶, Ellen Swanson#, Jessica Totaro**, Ray Woron††, Paul S. Mead*, Joseph S. Bresee*, Stephan S. Monroe*, and Roger I. Glass*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ‡Department of Human Resources, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; §Bureau of Community Environmental Health, Tallahassee, Florida, USA; ¶Ohio Department of Health, Columbus, Ohio, USA; #Department of Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; **Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; ††New York State Department of Health, Troy, New York, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis of known and unknown etiology by states grouped by number of reports of norovirus (NoV)-confirmed outbreaks, United States, 1998–2000

No. of NoV outbreaks reported by states No. of states reporting All reported outbreaks
NoV outbreaks reported
Total no. (R*) Determined etiology (%) Undetermined etiology (%) No. (% of all outbreaks) % of all outbreaks with determined etiology
>20 2 382 (2.3) 166 (43) 216 (57) 94 (25) 57
11–20 9 2,273 (2.3) 447 (20) 1,826 (80) 138 (6) 31
6–10 4 304 (0.8) 136 (45) 168 (55) 33 (11) 24
<5 21 830 (0.9) 269 (32) 561 (68) 40 (5) 15
None 15† 243 (0.8) 128 (53) 115 (47) 0 (0) 0
Total 51 4,032 (1.4) 1,146 (28) 2,886 (72) 305 (8) 27

*R = outbreaks reported per 100,000 population, using U.S. Census data 2000.
†Includes District of Columbia.

Main Article

1Efforts in 1998 to improve outbreak reporting resulted in more outbreaks being retrospectively attributed to this period. The current figures for 1993 to 1997 are 65 (2%) of 3,257 outbreaks attributable to NoV and 67% of unknown etiology.

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