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Volume 11, Number 1—January 2005

Research

Norovirus and Foodborne Disease, United States, 1991–2000

Marc-Alain Widdowson*Comments to Author , Alana Sulka*, Sandra N. Bulens*†, R. Suzanne Beard*, Sandra S. Chaves†‡, Roberta Hammond§, Ellen D.P. Salehi¶, Ellen Swanson#, Jessica Totaro**, Ray Woron††, Paul S. Mead*, Joseph S. Bresee*, Stephan S. Monroe*, and Roger I. Glass*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ‡Department of Human Resources, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; §Bureau of Community Environmental Health, Tallahassee, Florida, USA; ¶Ohio Department of Health, Columbus, Ohio, USA; #Department of Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; **Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; ††New York State Department of Health, Troy, New York, USA

Main Article

Table 4

Laboratory testing of fecal specimens from foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis and projected number of norovirus (NoV)-confirmed outbreaks in 6 states, 2000

State Total reported outbreaks Total with specimens (% of total outbreaks) No. positive/no. tested
No. with unknown etiology not tested for NoV* Total NoV 
outbreaks 
(% outbreaks 
with specimens)
Tested only for bacteria Tested only for NoV Tested for both bacteria and NoV
Total for 
bacteria (%) Total for 
NoV (%)
Bacteria NoV Actual Projected†
MD 116 42 (36) 13/35 2/2 0/5 5/5 13/40 (33) 7/7 (100) 22 7 (17) 29 (69)
MN 41 32 (78) 10/10 0/1 2/21 15/21 12/31 (39) 15/22 (68) 0 15 (47) 15 (47)
GA 26 19 (73) 9/9 0/0 2/10 7/10 11/19 (58) 7/10 (70) 0 7 (37) 7 (37)
NY 60 35 (58) 19/28 1/2 0/5 4/5 19/33 (58) 5/7 (71) 9 5 (14) 11 (31)
FL 274 40 (15) 11/26 1/3 0/6 3/6 11/32 (47) 4/9 (44) 11‡ 4 (10) 9 (23)
OH 83 52(63) 8/22 0/0 0/30 29/30 8/52 (15) 29/30(97) 13§ 29 (56) 42 (81)
Total 600 220 (37) 70/130 4/8 4/77 63/77 74/207 (38) 67/85 (79) 55 67 (30) 110 (50)b

*Derived by subtracting nominator from denominator in column 4, i.e., the number of outbreaks tested only for bacteria and with negative test results.
†Calculated by multiplying value in column 10 by percentage in column 9 and adding to value in column 11.
‡Excludes 4 confirmed outbreaks of other causes (3 of Cryptosporidium and 1 of chemical cause).
§Excludes 1 confirmed outbreak of chemical cause.

Main Article

1Efforts in 1998 to improve outbreak reporting resulted in more outbreaks being retrospectively attributed to this period. The current figures for 1993 to 1997 are 65 (2%) of 3,257 outbreaks attributable to NoV and 67% of unknown etiology.

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