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Volume 11, Number 8—August 2005


Malaria and Irrigated Crops, Accra, Ghana

Eveline Klinkenberg*†, P.J. McCall*, Ian M. Hastings*, Michael D. Wilson‡, Felix P. Amerasinghe§, and Martin J. Donnelly*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; †International Water Management Institute (West Africa), Accra, Ghana; ‡Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Ghana; §International Water Management Institute Headquarters, Colombo, Sri Lanka

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Table 2

Summary statistics for variables measured in children in communities near urban agricultural sites and control communities, with results of univariate (Pearson chi-square or t) tests*

Variables Children in urban agricultural communities (n = 1,223)† Children in control communities (n = 534) p value
Children with Plasmodium-positive slide, % 16.4 (200/1,223) 11.4 (61/534) 0.008
Mean Hb, g/dL (SD) 10.93 (1.46) 10.59 (1.46) <0.001
Hb <8 g/dL, % 3.4 (41/1,215) 5.5 (29/529) 0.039
Mean age, months (SD) 33.3 (17.1) 33.8 (17.0) 0.601
Mean socioeconomic score‡ (SD) 1.78 (0.96) 1.49 (1.02) <0.001
Travel to village§, % 7.9 2.4 <0.001
Taken malaria medication in last 2 wk¶, % 23.5 22.3 0.600
History of fever¶#, % 21.2 18.2 0.155
HH reporting bed net use, % 37.7 24.2 <0.001

*Hb, hemoglobin; HH, household. Control communities were those >1 km from an urban agricultural area.
†Number of children in the urban agricultural community group is higher because small plots of agriculture were discovered in 2 communities originally designated control sites. If these 2 communities were omitted from the analysis, similar results were obtained and significance remained the same except for children with moderate-to-severe anemia, which was no longer significant (p = 0.065) (data not shown).
‡Composite measure of socioeconomic status used was the asset factor score of the World Bank for Ghana (
§Persons who had traveled to a rural (potentially malarious) area in the previous 3 weeks.
¶As reported by the caregiver.
#In the last 48 h.

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