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Volume 12, Number 10—October 2006

Perspective

Birds and Influenza H5N1 Virus Movement to and within North America

John H. Rappole*Comments to Author  and Zdenek Hubálek†
Author affiliations: *Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA; †Academy of Sciences, Valtice, Czech Republic

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Figure 2

Map of known routes for natural interhemispheric bird movement: route 1, migrants breeding in Alaska and wintering in East Asia; route 2, migrants breeding in East Asia and wintering along the Pacific Coast of North America; route 3, migrants breeding in Iceland or northwestern Europe and wintering along the Atlantic Coast of North America; route 4, vagrants from West Africa carried by tropical storm systems across the Atlantic to eastern North America.

Figure 2. Map of known routes for natural interhemispheric bird movement: route 1, migrants breeding in Alaska and wintering in East Asia; route 2, migrants breeding in East Asia and wintering along the Pacific Coast of North America; route 3, migrants breeding in Iceland or northwestern Europe and wintering along the Atlantic Coast of North America; route 4, vagrants from West Africa carried by tropical storm systems across the Atlantic to eastern North America.

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