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Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007

Perspective

Effects of Local Anthropogenic Changes on Potential Malaria Vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile Virus Vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France

Nicolas Ponçon*, Thomas Balenghien†‡, Céline Toty*, Jean Baptiste Ferré§, Cyrille Thomas¶, Alain Dervieux#, Grégory L’Ambert§, Francis Schaffner§**, Olivier Bardin§, and Didier Fontenille*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, France; †École Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon, Marcy l’Étoile, France; ‡Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Montpellier, France; §Entente Interdépartementale pour la Démoustication Méditerranée, Montpellier, France; ¶Centre Français du Riz, Arles, France; #Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Arles, France; **University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland;

Main Article

Table

Sprayed rice surfaces (hectares) to control striped rice borer in the Camargue

Years of insecticide spraying Insecticides effective against mosquitoes
Lepidopteron-specific insecticides
Fenitrothion, trichlorfon, and chlorphenamidine Alphamethrin Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Tebufenozide
1972 10,000 0 0 0
1973 6,500 0 0 0
1974 9,000 0 0 0
1975–1989 Very limited 0 0 0
1990–1996 0 Intensive, ≈2/3 of rice surfaces 0 0
1996–1999 0 Permitted but not often used 0
2000 0 11,500 500 0
2001 0 11,500 500 200
2002 0 10,000 2,000 300
2003 0 10,000 2,000 400
2004 0 4,500 1,000 500
2005 0 0 800 2,300
2006 0 0 Very limited ≈3,000

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