Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007
Volume 13, Number 12—December 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 5.93 MB - 175 pages]
Effects of Local Anthropogenic Changes on Potential Malaria Vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile Virus Vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France
PDF Version [PDF - 137 KB - 6 pages]
N. Ponçon et al.View Abstract
Using historical data, we highlight the consequences of anthropogenic ecosystem modifications on the abundance of mosquitoes implicated as the current most important potential malaria vector, Anopheles hyrcanus, and the most important West Nile virus (WNV) vector, Culex modestus, in the Camargue region, France. From World War II to 1971, populations of these species increased as rice cultivation expanded in the region in a political context that supported agriculture. They then fell, likely because of decreased cultivation and increased pesticide use to control a rice pest. The species increased again after 2000 with the advent of more targeted pest-management strategies, mainly the results of European regulations decisions. An intertwined influence of political context, environmental constraints, technical improvements, and social factors led to changes in mosquito abundance that had potential consequences on malaria and WNV transmission. These findings suggest that anthropogenic changes should not be underestimated in vectorborne disease recrudescence.
Need for Improved Methods to Collect and Present Spatial Epidemiologic Data for Vectorborne Diseases
PDF Version [PDF - 224 KB - 5 pages]
L. Eisen and R. J. EisenView Abstract
Improved methods for collection and presentation of spatial epidemiologic data are needed for vectorborne diseases in the United States. Lack of reliable data for probable pathogen exposure site has emerged as a major obstacle to the development of predictive spatial risk models. Although plague case investigations can serve as a model for how to ideally generate needed information, this comprehensive approach is cost-prohibitive for more common and less severe diseases. New methods are urgently needed to determine probable pathogen exposure sites that will yield reliable results while taking into account economic and time constraints of the public health system and attending physicians. Recent data demonstrate the need for a change from use of the county spatial unit for presentation of incidence of vectorborne diseases to more precise ZIP code or census tract scales. Such fine-scale spatial risk patterns can be communicated to the public and medical community through Web-mapping approaches.
Susceptibility of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1)
PDF Version [PDF - 522 KB - 7 pages]
J. Pasick et al.View Abstract
Migratory birds have been implicated in the long-range spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus (H5N1) from Asia to Europe and Africa. Although sampling of healthy wild birds representing a large number of species has not identified possible carriers of influenza virus (H5N1) into Europe, surveillance of dead and sick birds has demonstrated mute (Cygnus olor) and whooper (C. cygnus) swans as potential sentinels. Because of concerns that migratory birds could spread H5N1 subtype to the Western Hemisphere and lead to its establishment within free-living avian populations, experimental studies have addressed the susceptibility of several indigenous North American duck and gull species. We examined the susceptibility of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to HPAI virus (H5N1). Large populations of this species can be found in periagricultural and periurban settings and thus may be of potential epidemiologic importance if H5N1 subtype were to establish itself in North American wild bird populations.
Fishborne Zoonotic Intestinal Trematodes, Vietnam
PDF Version [PDF - 396 KB - 6 pages]
D. T. Dung et al.View Abstract
Although fishborne zoonotic trematodes that infect the liver are well documented in Vietnam, intestinal fishborne zoonotic trematodes are unreported. Recent discoveries of the metacercarial stage of these flukes in wild and farmed fish prompted an assessment of their risk to a community that eats raw fish. A fecal survey of 615 persons showed a trematode egg prevalence of 64.9%. Infected persons were treated to expel liver and intestinal parasites for specific identification. The liver trematode Clonorchis sinensis was recovered from 51.5%, but >1 of 4 intestinal species of the family Heterophyidae was recovered from 100%. The most numerous were Haplorchis spp. (90.4% of all worms recovered). These results demonstrate that fishborne intestinal parasites are an unrecognized food safety risk in a country whose people have a strong tradition of eating raw fish.
Emergence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus of Animal Origin in Humans
PDF Version [PDF - 358 KB - 6 pages]
I. van Loo et al.View Abstract
In 2003 in the Netherlands, a new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain emerged that could not be typed with Sma1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NT-MRSA). The association of NT-MRSA in humans with a reservoir in animals was investigated. The frequency of NT-MRSA increased from 0% in 2002 to >21% after intensified surveillance was implemented in July 2006. Geographically, NT-MRSA clustered with pig farming. A case–control study showed that carriers of NT-MRSA were more often pig or cattle farmers (pig farmers odds ratio [OR] 12.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1–48.6; cattle farmers OR 19.7, 95% CI 2.3–169.5). Molecular typing showed that the NT-MRSA strains belonged to a new clonal complex, ST 398. This study shows that MRSA from an animal reservoir has recently entered the human population and is now responsible for >20% of all MRSA in the Netherlands.
Hospitalizations and Deaths Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United States, 1999–2005
PDF Version [PDF - 192 KB - 7 pages]
E. Klein et al.View Abstract
Hospital-acquired infections with Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections, are a major cause of illness and death and impose serious economic costs on patients and hospitals. However, the recent magnitude and trend of these infections have not been reported. We used national hospitalization and resistance data to estimate the annual number of hospitalizations and deaths associated with S. aureus and MRSA from 1999 through 2005. During this period, the estimated number of S. aureus–related hospitalizations increased 62%, from 294,570 to 477,927, and the estimated number of MRSA-related hospitalizations more than doubled, from 127,036 to 278,203. Our findings suggest that S. aureus and MRSA should be considered a national priority for disease control.
Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg Virus
PDF Version [PDF - 158 KB - 5 pages]
R. Swanepoel et al.View Abstract
To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998–2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%–3.6% of 2 species of insectivorous bat and 1 species of fruit bat. We found antibody to the virus in the serum of 9.7% of 1 of the insectivorous species and in 20.5% of the fruit bat species, but attempts to isolate virus were unsuccessful.
Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection in Older Adults in Long-term Care Facilities and the Community, United States, 1998–2003
PDF Version [PDF - 215 KB - 8 pages]
M. C. Thigpen et al.View Abstract
Limited information exists on the incidence and characteristics of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections among residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). We reviewed cases of invasive GAS infections occurring among persons >65 years of age identified through active, population-based surveillance from 1998 through 2003. We identified 1,762 invasive GAS cases among persons >65 years, including 1,662 with known residence type (LTCF or community). Incidence of invasive GAS infection among LTCF residents compared to community-based elderly was 41.0 versus 6.9 cases per 100,000 population. LTCF case-patients were 1.5 times as likely to die from the infection as community-based case-patients (33% vs. 21%, p<0.01) but were less often hospitalized (90% vs. 95%, p<0.01). In multivariate logistic regression modeling, LTCF residence remained an independent predictor of death. Additional prevention strategies against GAS infection in this high-risk population are urgently needed.
Pig Herds Free from Human Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica
PDF Version [PDF - 273 KB - 5 pages]
T. Nesbakken et al.View Abstract
Pork products are a substantial source of human yersiniosis, a foodborne disease caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. Thus, the ability to eliminate this agent from pig herds would be an important step in producing human pathogen–free pork. Pig herds free from Y. enterocolitica O:3/biovar 4 have been established and maintained. According to serologic and cultural testing results, 15 of 16 specific pathogen–free herds were free from Y. enterocolitica O:3/biovar 4; this closed breeding pyramid has remained free from this organism since 1996. Pig herds free from human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica suggest that human pathogen–free herds could be attained to provide pork free from zoonotic agents.
Swine Influenza (H3N2) Infection in a Child and Possible Community Transmission, Canada
PDF Version [PDF - 268 KB - 6 pages]
J. L. Robinson et al.View Abstract
An influenza A virus (H3N2) of probable swine origin, designated A/Canada/1158/2006, was isolated from a 7-month-old hospitalized child who lived on a communal farm in Canada. The child recovered uneventfully. A serosurvey that used a hemagglutination-inhibition assay for A/Canada/1158/2006 was conducted on 54 of the 90 members of the farm. Seropositivity was demonstrated in the index patient, 4 of 7 household members, and 4 of 46 nonhousehold members; none had a history of hospital admission for respiratory illness in the preceding year. Serologic evidence for this strain of swine influenza was also found in 1 of 10 pigs (12 weeks–6 months of age) on the farm. Human infection with swine influenza virus is underrecognized in Canada, and because viral strains could adapt or reassort into a form that results in efficient human-to-human transmission, routine surveillance of swine workers should be considered as part of pandemic influenza preparedness.
Swine Workers and Swine Influenza Virus Infections
PDF Version [PDF - 154 KB - 8 pages]
G. C. Gray et al.View Abstract
In 2004, 803 rural Iowans from the Agricultural Health Study were enrolled in a 2-year prospective study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Demographic and occupational exposure data from enrollment, 12-month, and 24-month follow-up encounters were examined for association with evidence of previous and incident influenza virus infections. When proportional odds modeling with multivariable adjustment was used, upon enrollment, swine-exposed participants (odds ratio [OR] 54.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.0–232.6) and their nonswine-exposed spouses (OR 28.2, 95% CI 6.1–130.1) were found to have an increased odds of elevated antibody level to swine influenza (H1N1) virus compared with 79 nonexposed University of Iowa personnel. Further evidence of occupational swine influenza virus infections was observed through self-reported influenza-like illness data, comparisons of enrollment and follow-up serum samples, and the isolation of a reassortant swine influenza (H1N1) virus from an ill swine farmer. Study data suggest that swine workers and their nonswine-exposed spouses are at increased risk of zoonotic influenza virus infections.
Epidemiology and Molecular Virus Characterization of Reemerging Rabies, South Africa
PDF Version [PDF - 302 KB - 8 pages]
C. Cohen et al.View Abstract
The incidence of dog rabies in Limpopo Province, South Africa, increased from 5 cases in 2004 to 100 in 2006. Human rabies had last been confirmed in 1981, but investigations instituted after an index case was recognized in February 2006 identified 21 confirmed, 4 probable, and 5 possible human cases between August 5, 2005, and December 31, 2006. Twelve of these case-patients were identified retrospectively because the diagnosis of rabies was not considered: 6 of these patients consulted a traditional healer, 6 had atypical manifestations with prominent abdominal symptoms, and 6 of 7 patients tested had elevated liver enzyme activity. Molecular genetic analysis indicated that outbreak virus strains were most closely related to recent canine strains from southern Zimbabwe. Delayed recognition of the human cases may have resulted from decreased clinical suspicion after many years of effective control of the disease and the occurrence of atypical clinical presentations.
Phenotypic Similarity of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy in Cattle and L-type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in a Mouse Model
PDF Version [PDF - 817 KB - 8 pages]
T. Baron et al.View Abstract
Transmissible mink encepholapathy (TME) is a foodborne transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of ranch-raised mink; infection with a ruminant TSE has been proposed as the cause, but the precise origin of TME is unknown. To compare the phenotypes of each TSE, bovine-passaged TME isolate and 3 distinct natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents (typical BSE, H-type BSE, and L-type BSE) were inoculated into an ovine transgenic mouse line (TgOvPrP4). Transgenic mice were susceptible to infection with bovine-passaged TME, typical BSE, and L-type BSE but not to H-type BSE. Based on survival periods, brain lesions profiles, disease-associated prion protein brain distribution, and biochemical properties of protease-resistant prion protein, typical BSE had a distint phenotype in ovine transgenic mice compared to L-type BSE and bovine TME. The similar phenotypic properties of L-type BSE and bovine TME in TgOvPrP4 mice suggest that L-type BSE is a much more likely candidate for the origin of TME than is typical BSE.
Changing Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis, Germany, 1962–2005
PDF Version [PDF - 230 KB - 6 pages]
S. Al Dahouk et al.View Abstract
Trends in the epidemiology of human brucellosis in Germany were investigated by analyzing national surveillance data (1962–2005) complemented by a questionnaire-based survey (1995–2000). After a steady decrease in brucellosis incidence from 1962 to the 1980s, a persistent number of cases has been reported in recent years, with the highest incidence in Turkish immigrants (0.3/100,000 Turks vs. 0.01/100,000 in the German population; incidence rate ratio 29). Among cases with reported exposure risks, 59% were related to the consumption of unpasteurized cheese from brucellosis-endemic countries. The mean diagnostic delay was 2.5 months. Case fatality rates increased from 0.4% (1978–1981) to a maximum of 6.5% (1998–2001). The epidemiology of brucellosis in Germany has evolved from an endemic occupational disease among the German population into a travel-associated foodborne zoonosis, primarily affecting Turkish immigrants. Prolonged diagnostic delays and high case fatality call for targeted public health measures.
Viable Newcastle Disease Vaccine Strains in a Pharmaceutical Dump
PDF Version [PDF - 211 KB - 3 pages]
A. Amendola et al.View Abstract
To assess the viability of discarded and buried vaccine strains, we examined vaccines that had been buried for >20 years in an industrial waste dump in the city of Milan, Italy. Viability results showed potential biological risk associated with uncontrolled burial of pharmaceutical industry waste, including some live vaccines.
Parachlamydia spp. and Related Chlamydia-like Organisms and Bovine Abortion
PDF Version [PDF - 268 KB - 4 pages]
N. Borel et al.View Abstract
Chlamydophila abortus and Waddlia chondrophila cause abortion in ruminants. We investigated the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion. Results of immunohistochemical analyses were positive in 30 (70%) of 43 placentas from which Chlamydia-like DNA was amplified, which supports the role of Parachlamydia spp. in bovine abortion.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Feral Swine near Spinach Fields and Cattle, Central California Coast
PDF Version [PDF - 277 KB - 4 pages]
M. T. Jay et al.View Abstract
We investigated involvement of feral swine in contamination of agricultural fields and surface waterways with Escherichia coli O157:H7 after a nationwide outbreak traced to bagged spinach from California. Isolates from feral swine, cattle, surface water, sediment, and soil at 1 ranch were matched to the outbreak strain.
Crow Deaths Caused by West Nile Virus during Winter
PDF Version [PDF - 190 KB - 3 pages]
J. R. Dawson et al.View Abstract
In New York, an epizootic of American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) deaths from West Nile virus (WNV) infection occurred during winter 2004–2005, a cold season when mosquitoes are not active. Detection of WNV in feces collected at the roost suggests lateral transmission through contact or fecal contamination.
Seroconversion in Wild Birds and Local Circulation of West Nile Virus, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 3 pages]
J. Figuerola et al.View Abstract
A serosurvey for neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) in common coots (Fulica atra) was conducted in Doñana, Spain. Antibody prevalence was highest in 2003, intermediate in 2004, and lowest in 2005. Some birds seroreverted <1 year after first capture. Seroconversion of birds suggests local circulation of the virus.
Risk Factors for West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease, California, 2005
PDF Version [PDF - 246 KB - 3 pages]
C. M. Jean et al.View Abstract
In 2005, 880 West Nile virus cases were reported in California; 305 case-patients exhibited neuroinvasive disease, including meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. Risk factors independently associated with developing neuroinvasive disease rather than West Nile fever included older age, male sex, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus.
Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes in Relation to Trap Habitat
PDF Version [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
L. A. Patrican et al.View Abstract
Mosquito feeding patterns identify vertebrate species potentially involved in the amplification of West Nile virus. In New York, northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) were the predominant hosts in most habitats. Crow (Corvus sp.) blood meals were most frequently identified from sewage treatment plant and storm water catch basin habitats.
Human and Animal Infections with Mycobacterium microti, Scotland
PDF Version [PDF - 302 KB - 4 pages]
F. X. Emmanuel et al.View Abstract
During 1994–2005, we isolated Mycobacterium microti from 5 animals and 4 humans. Only 1 person was immunocompromised. Spoligotyping showed 3 patterns: vole type, llama type, and a new variant llama type.
African Swine Fever Virus DNA in Soft Ticks, Senegal
PDF Version [PDF - 377 KB - 4 pages]
L. Vial et al.View Abstract
African swine fever is a highly contagious disease of pigs in Africa. Although its persistence in Senegal may be caused by asymptomatic carriers involved in the domestic transmission cycle, we demonstrated that the soft tick Ornithodoros sonrai can be naturally infected with the causative agent.
Enhanced Subtyping Scheme for Salmonella Enteritidis
PDF Version [PDF - 211 KB - 4 pages]
J. Zheng et al.View Abstract
To improve pulsed-field gel electrophoresis–based strain discrimination of 76 Salmonella Enteritidis strains, we evaluated 6 macro-restriction endonucleases, separately and in various combinations. One 3-enzyme subset, SfiI/PacI/NotI, was highly discriminatory. Five different indices, including the Simpson diversity index, supported this 3-enzyme combination for improved differentiation of S. Enteritidis.
Clinical and Epidemiologic Characterization of WU Polyomavirus Infection, St. Louis, Missouri
PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
B. Le et al.View Abstract
WU polyomavirus is a recently described polyomavirus found in patients with respiratory infections. Of 2,637 respiratory samples tested in St. Louis, Missouri, 2.7% were positive for WU polyomavirus by PCR, and 71% were coinfected with other respiratory viruses. Persistent human infection with WU polyomavirus is described.
WU Polyomavirus in Children, Canada
PDF Version [PDF - 215 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Abed et al.View Abstract
WU polyomavirus was detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates in 2 (2.5%) of 79 children with respiratory infections (both infected with respiratory syncytial virus) and in 5 (6.4%) of 78 asymptomatic children during the same winter season in Canada. The strains were closely related to Australian and American viruses based on analysis of large T antigen (TAg) and VP2 genes. The pathogenic role of WU virus is still uncertain.
Rhodococcus equi Infection after Alemtuzumab Therapy for T-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia
PDF Version [PDF - 123 KB - 2 pages]
J. J. Meeuse et al.View Abstract
Rhodococcus equi, mainly known from veterinary medicine as a pathogen in domestic animals, can also cause infections in immunocompromised humans, especially in those with defects in cellular immunity. Alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, causes lymphocytopenia by eliminating CD52-positive cells. We report a patient in whom Rhodococcus equi infection developed after alemtuzumab therapy.
Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Singapore Hospitals
PDF Version [PDF - 291 KB - 4 pages]
L. Hsu et al.View Abstract
A new national antimicrobial resistance surveillance program in Singapore public hospitals that uses WHONET detected high levels of methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus (35.3%), carbapenem resistance among Acinetobacter spp. (49.6%), and third-generation cephalosporin resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae (35.9%) hospital isolates in 2006. Antimicrobial drug resistance is a major problem in Singapore.
Bartonella DNA in Dog Saliva
PDF Version [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
A. W. Duncan et al.View Abstract
Bartonella species, transmitted by arthropods or animal bites and scratches, are emerging pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to test oral swabs collected from dogs. Results indicated the presence of 4 Bartonella species: B. bovis, B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii.
Use of Fly Screens to Reduce Campylobacter spp. Introduction in Broiler Houses
PDF Version [PDF - 198 KB - 3 pages]
B. Hald et al.View Abstract
Fly screens that prevented influx of flies in 20 broiler houses during the summer of 2006 in Denmark caused a decrease in Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks from 51.4% in control houses to 15.4% in case houses. A proportional reduction in the incidence of chicken-borne campylobacteriosis can be expected by comprehensive intervention against flies in broiler production houses.
Impact of Globalization and Animal Trade on Infectious Disease Ecology
PDF Version [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
N. Marano et al.
Multidrug-Resistant Typhoid Fever Outbreak in Travelers Returning from Bangladesh
PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Kato et al.
Human Rabies Cluster Following Badger Bites, People’s Republic of China
PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 3 pages]
G. Zhenyu et al.
Diphyllobothrium latum Outbreak from Marinated Raw Perch, Lake Geneva, Switzerland
PDF Version [PDF - 122 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Jackson et al.
Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Strategies
PDF Version [PDF - 123 KB - 2 pages]
S. P. Cachafeiro
Distemper in a Dolphin
PDF Version [PDF - 194 KB - 3 pages]
P. Wohlsein et al.
Bartonella australis sp. nov. from Kangaroos, Australia
PDF Version [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
P. Fournier et al.
Q Fever in Migrant Workers, Scotland
PDF Version [PDF - 136 KB - 2 pages]
K. Pollock et al.
Fatal Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum Infection in a Man
PDF Version [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
H. Marchandin et al.
Rabies Prophylaxis for Pregnant Women
PDF Version [PDF - 111 KB - 2 pages]
M. E. Abazeed and S. Cinti
Novel Orthoreovirus from Diseased Crow, Finland
PDF Version [PDF - 156 KB - 3 pages]
E. Huhtamo et al.
Detecting Human-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza A (H5N1)
PDF Version [PDF - 334 KB - 3 pages]
T. M. Uyeki and J. S. Bresee
Books and Media
Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth-Century America
PDF Version [PDF - 103 KB - 1 page]
S. S. Morse
Emerging Viruses in Human Populations
PDF Version [PDF - 109 KB - 2 pages]
A. C. Brault
Francisella tularensis: Biology, Pathogenicity, Epidemiology, and Biodefense
PDF Version [PDF - 104 KB - 1 page]
About the Cover
- Page created: July 09, 2012
- Page last updated: July 09, 2012
- Page last reviewed: July 09, 2012
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
Office of the Director (OD)