Worldwide Emergence of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis
N. Sarita Shah*1 , Abigail Wright†, Gill-Han Bai‡2, Lucia Barrera§2, Fadila Boulahbal¶2, Nuria Martín-Casabona#2, Francis Drobniewski**2, Chris Gilpin††2, Marta Havelková‡‡2, Rosario Lepe§§2, Richard Lumb¶¶2, Beverly Metchock*2, Françoise Portaels##2, Maria Filomena Rodrigues***2, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes†††2, Armand Van Deun##2, Veronique Vincent‡‡‡2, Kayla Laserson*, Charles Wells*, and J. Peter Cegielski*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; ‡Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, Seoul, Republic of Korea; §National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Buenos Aires, Argentina; ¶Institut Pasteur d’Algérie, Alger, Algeria; #Hospital Universitaris Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; **Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom; ††Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; ‡‡National Institute of Public Health, Scrobarova, Czech Republic; §§Institute of Public Health of Chile, Providencia Santiago, Chile; ¶¶Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; ##Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; ***National Institute of Health, Porto, Portugal; †††National Reference Center for Mycobacteria, Borstel, Germany; ‡‡‡Institut Pasteur, Paris, France; 1Current affiliation: Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA; 2Member: World Health Organization/International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Network of Supranational Reference Laboratories
Figure 2. Selection of study sample and summary of drug-resistance patterns of isolates. SRL, Supranational Reference Laboratory. *Tested before 2000 or after 2004 (n = 247) or tested for resistance to <3 classes of second-line drugs (n = 535). †Data for ethambutol resistance missing for 5 isolates.
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