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Volume 13, Number 7—July 2007

Dispatch

Point-of-Use Water Treatment and Use among Mothers in Malawi

Lauren J. Stockman*†Comments to Author , Thea K. Fischer*, Michael Deming*, Bagrey Ngwira‡, Cameron Bowie‡, Nigel Cunliffe§, Joseph Bresee*, and Robert E. Quick*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Decatur, Georgia, USA; ‡University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi; §University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK;

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Table 2

Univariate and multivariate odds ratios and p value for awareness and current use of WaterGuard*

Predictor variable Total No. (%) Crude OR (95% CI)†‡ Adjusted OR (95% CI)§ p value¶
Have heard of WaterGuard
Urban population 156 147 (94.2) 9.87 (5.46–17.85) 3.92 (2.26–6.78) <0.001
Mother attended school 909 713 (78.4) 3.75 (2.59–5.42) 2.84 (2.00–4.05) <0.001
Husband attended school 1,072 776 (72.4) 2.89 (2.22–3.78) 1.90 (1.45–2.49) <0.001
Higher wealth quintile 608 471 (77.5) 2.54 (1.69–3.80) 1.97 (1.41–2.74) 0.0003
Region
Central 723 461 (63.8) 1.15 (0.47–2.80) NS
South 708 484 (68.4) 1.41 (0.63–3.14) NS
Mother employed 74 59 (79.7) 2.15 (1.03–4.50) NS
Improved drinking water 1,106 718 (64.9) 0.95 (0.61–1.47) NS
Currently using WaterGuard
Urban population 144 34 (23.6) 2.86 (1.55–5.28) 2.01 (1.06–3.82) 0.0342
Region
Central 456 67 (14.7) 3.36 (1.60–7.05) 1.88 (0.93–3.78) 0.1981
South 481 50 (10.4) 2.26 (0.96–5.31) 1.49 (0.60–3.70) 0.1981
Mother employed 58 13 (22.4) 2.22 (1.06–4.67) 1.67 (0.83–3.39) 0.1465
Higher wealth quintile 465 72 (15.5) 1.87 (1.08–3.23) 1.42 (0.84–2.42) 0.1866
Mother attended school 709 91 (12.8) 1.45 (0.69–3.01) NS
Husband attended school 771 93 (12.1) 1.22 (0.67–2.21) NS
Improved drinking water 712 87 (12.2) 1.22 (0.46–3.21) NS

*OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; NS, variable did not meet criterion for remaining in the multivariate model.
†OR >1 for region central or region south indicates a higher probability than the north region.
‡OR >1 for higher quintile (4 and 5) indicates a higher probability than those in the lower quintile (1, 2, and 3).
§Predictor variables with a p = 0.10 in univariate analysis were included in the multivariate model to adjust for these simultaneously.
¶p value for Wald F statistic for the adjusted OR.

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