Get Email Updates
To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address:
Volume 13, Number 7—July 2007
Volume 13, Number 7—July 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 10.66 MB - 179 pages]
Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins
PDF Version [PDF - 225 KB - 8 pages]
G. S. Trindade et al.View Abstract
Although the World Health Organization (WHO) declared global smallpox eradicated in 1980, concerns over emergent poxvirus infections have increased. Most poxvirus infections are zoonotic; exploring their genetic diversity will illuminate the genetic and evolutionary aspects of poxvirus infections, ecology, and epidemiology. In recent decades, several strains of the orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) have been isolated throughout Brazil, including many genetically distinct isolates within the same outbreak. To further investigate the diversity and origins of these viruses, we analyzed molecular data from 8 Brazilian VACV isolates and compared several genes involved in virus structure and pathogenicity. Genetic variation among isolates suggests that ancestral Brazilian VACVs existed before the beginning of the WHO smallpox eradication vaccination campaigns and that these viruses continue to circulate.
Large Water Management Projects and Schistosomiasis Control, Dongting Lake Region, China
PDF Version [PDF - 559 KB - 7 pages]
Y. Li et al.View Abstract
Construction of the Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River will substantially change the ecology of the Dongting Lake in southern China. In addition, the Central and Hunan Provinces’ governmental authorities have instigated a Return Land to Lake Program that will extend the Dongting Lake surface area from the current 2,681 km2 to 4,350 km2.The previous construction of embankments and the large silt deposits made by the Yangtze River and other connecting rivers have contributed to frequent disastrous flooding. As a consequence of the 2 water projects, >2 million persons and their domestic animals are being resettled. This article provides an overview of the historical background of these 2 large water management projects, the associated population movement, and their impact on future transmission and control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area. The dam will likely substantially extend the range of the snail habitats and increase schistosome transmission and schistosomiasis cases.
Thottapalayam Virus, a Prototype Shrewborne Hantavirus
PDF Version [PDF - 861 KB - 6 pages]
J. Song et al.View Abstract
Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) has been placed in the genus Hantavirus of the family Bunyaviridae by virtue of its morphologic features and overall genetic similarities to well-characterized rodentborne hantaviruses. This virus has been isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus); however, whether TPMV is naturally harbored by an insectivore host or represents spillover from a rodent reservoir host is unknown. Our analysis of published and unpublished data on the experimental host range, genetics, and molecular phylogeny of TPMV supports coevolution of TPMV with its nonrodent reservoir host. Future studies on the epizootiology of TPMV and investigations of new shrewborne hantaviruses will provide additional insights into the evolutionary origin of hantaviruses in their rodent and insectivore reservoir hosts. Such investigations may also provide clues about determinants of hantavirus pathogenicity and virulence.
Virulence Characteristics of Klebsiella and Clinical Manifestations of K. pneumoniae Bloodstream Infections
PDF Version [PDF - 244 KB - 8 pages]
V. L. Yu et al.View Abstract
We studied 455 consecutive episodes of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia occurring in 7 countries. Community-acquired pneumonia and an invasive syndrome of liver abscess, meningitis, or endophthalmitis occurred only in Taiwan and South Africa. Infections by K1 and K2 capsular serotype, the mucoid phenotype, and aerobactin production were important determinants of virulence. The mucoid phenotype was seen in 94% of isolates in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and in 100% of isolates that caused the invasive syndrome in Taiwan and South Africa, compared with only 2% of isolates elsewhere. Mortality of mice injected with mucoid strains (69%) was strikingly higher than that occurring in mice injected with nonmucoid strains (3%, p<0.001). Differences in clinical features of bacteremic infection with K. pneumoniae are due to the virulence factors expressed by the organism.
Antimicrobial Drugs and Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United Kingdom
V. Schneider-Lindner et al.View Abstract
We report results of a case–control study of the association between receipt of antimicrobial agents and diagnosis of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the United Kingdom. Eligible adults, selected from the General Practice Research Database, had no previous diagnosis of MRSA, no hospitalization in the past 2 years, and >2 years of follow-up recorded in the database. For 2000–2004, we identified 1,981 MRSA case-patients and 19,779 matched control-patients. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MRSA diagnosis for patients who were prescribed 1, 2–3, or >4 antimicrobial drugs were 1.57 (CI 1.36–1.80), 2.46 (CI 2.15–2.83), and 6.24 (CI 5.43–7.17), respectively. Risk for community-acquired MRSA increased with number of antimicrobial drug prescriptions, appeared to vary according to antimicrobial drug classes prescribed the previous year, and was highest for quinolones (OR 3.37, CI 2.80–4.09) and macrolides (OR 2.50, CI 2.14–2.91).
Antiretroviral Therapy during Tuberculosis Treatment and Marked Reduction in Death Rate of HIV-Infected Patients, Thailand
PDF Version [PDF - 103 KB - 7 pages]
S. Akksilp et al.View Abstract
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is lifesaving in patients with advanced HIV infection, but the magnitude of benefit in HIV-infected patients receiving tuberculosis (TB) treatment remains uncertain, and population-based data from developing countries are limited. We prospectively collected data about HIV-infected TB patients from February 2003 through January 2004 in Ubon-ratchathani, Thailand. During 12 months, HIV was diagnosed in 329 (14%) of 2,342 patients registered for TB treatment. Of patients with known outcomes, death during TB treatment occurred in 5 (7%) of 71 who received ART and 94 (43%) of 219 who did not. Using multivariate analysis, we found a large reduction in the odds of death for patients receiving ART before or during TB treatment (odds ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1–0.5), adjusting for CD4 count, smear status, co-trimoxazole use, and treatment facility. ART is associated with a substantial reduction in deaths during TB treatment for HIV-infected TB patients in Thailand.
Ongoing Genome Reduction in Mycobacterium ulcerans
PDF Version [PDF - 338 KB - 8 pages]
S. Rondini et al.View Abstract
Elucidation of the transmission, epidemiology, and evolution of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is hampered by the striking lack of genetic diversity of this emerging pathogen. However, by using a prototype plasmid-based microarray that covered 10% of the genome, we found multiple genomic DNA deletions among 30 M. ulcerans clinical isolates of diverse geographic origins. Many of the changes appear to have been mediated by insertion sequence (IS) elements IS2404 and IS2606, which have high copy numbers. Classification of the deleted genes according to their biological functions supports the hypothesis that M. ulcerans has recently evolved from the generalist environmental M. marinum to become a niche-adapted specialist. The substantial genomic diversity, along with a prototype microarray that covered a small portion of the genome, suggests that a genome-wide microarray will make available a genetic fingerprinting method with the high resolution required for microepidemiologic studies.
Rift Valley Fever Outbreak with East-Central African Virus Lineage in Mauritania, 2003
PDF Version [PDF - 341 KB - 8 pages]
O. Faye et al.View Abstract
In October 2003, 9 human cases of hemorrhagic fever were reported in 3 provinces of Mauritania, West Africa. Test results showed acute Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection, and a field investigation found recent circulation of RVFV with a prevalence rate of 25.5% (25/98) and 4 deaths among the 25 laboratory-confirmed case-patients. Immunoglobulin M against RVFV was found in 46% (25/54) of domestic animals. RVFV was also isolated from the mosquito species Culex poicilipes. Genetic comparison of virion segments indicated little variation among the strains isolated. However, phylogenetic studies clearly demonstrated that these strains belonged to the East-Central African lineage for all segments. To our knowledge, this is the first time viruses of this lineage have been observed in an outbreak in West Africa. Whether these strains were introduced or are endemic in West Africa remains to be determined.
Response to Emerging Infection Leading to Outbreak of Linezolid-Resistant Enterococci
PDF Version [PDF - 228 KB - 7 pages]
M. A. Kainer et al.View Abstract
Linezolid was approved in 2000 for treatment of gram-positive coccal infections. We performed a case-control study during a hospital outbreak of linezolid-resistant enterococci (LRE) infections, comparing cases of LRE infection (cases) with linezolid-sensitive enterococci infections (controls). Nasal and perirectal swab samples were obtained from all patients in a 1-day point-prevalence survey. We examined antimicrobial drug use and calculated the defined daily dose of linezolid per 1,000 patient-days. Fifteen LRE cases were identified (13 Enterococcus faecalis and 2 E. faecium); 7 were vancomycin-resistant. Compared with controls, case-patients had increased in-hospital mortality rates and lengths of stay. Multivariate analysis identified independent predictors of LRE infection: prior cultures positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 27), hospitalization duration before index culture (AOR 1.1 per day), and duration of preceding linezolid therapy (AOR 1.1 per day). Linezolid exposure and patient-to-patient transmission appear to be responsible for LRE infections, an important emerging hospital problem.
Person-to-Person Transmission of Nipah Virus in a Bangladeshi Community
PDF Version [PDF - 239 KB - 7 pages]
E. S. Gurley et al.View Abstract
An encephalitis outbreak was investigated in Faridpur District, Bangladesh, in April–May 2004 to determine the cause of the outbreak and risk factors for disease. Biologic specimens were tested for Nipah virus. Surfaces were evaluated for Nipah virus contamination by using reverse transcription–PCR (RT-PCR). Thirty-six cases of Nipah virus illness were identified; 75% of case-patients died. Multiple peaks of illness occurred, and 33 case-patients had close contact with another Nipah virus patient before their illness. Results from a case-control study showed that contact with 1 patient carried the highest risk for infection (odds ratio 6.7, 95% confidence interval 2.9–16.8, p<0.001). RT-PCR testing of environmental samples confirmed Nipah virus contamination of hospital surfaces. This investigation provides evidence for person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus. Capacity for person-to-person transmission increases the potential for wider spread of this highly lethal pathogen and highlights the need for infection control strategies for resource-poor settings.
Effects of Internal Border Control on Spread of Pandemic Influenza
PDF Version [PDF - 525 KB - 8 pages]
J. G. Wood et al.View Abstract
We investigated the capacity of internal border control to limit influenza spread in an emergent pandemic in the context of Australia, a country with a low-population density and geopolitical boundaries that may facilitate restrictions. Mathematical models were used to study the time delay between epidemics in 2 population centers when travel restrictions were imposed. The models demonstrated that population size, travel rates, and places where travelers reside can strongly influence delay. The model simulations suggested that moderate delays in geographic spread may be possible with stringent restrictions and a low reproduction number, but results will be sensitive to the reproduction number and timing of restrictions. Model limitations include the absence of further importations and additional control measures. Internal border control may have a role in protecting domestic centers early in a pandemic, when importations are sparse. Our results may be useful for policymakers.
Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City
PDF Version [PDF - 1.86 MB - 6 pages]
V. J. Lee et al.View Abstract
Tropical cities such as Singapore do not have well-defined influenza seasons but have not been spared from influenza pandemics. The 1918 epidemic in Singapore, which was then already a major global trading hub, occurred in 2 waves, June–July, and October–November, and resulted in >2,870 deaths. The excess mortality rate was higher than that for industrialized nations in the Northern Hemisphere but lower than that for less industrialized countries in Asia and Africa. The 1957 epidemic occurred in May and resulted in widespread illness. The 1968 epidemic occurred in August and lasted a few weeks, again with widespread illness. Tropical cities may be affected early in a pandemic and have higher mortality rates. With the increase in travel and trade, a future pandemic may reach a globally connected city early and spread worldwide. Preparedness and surveillance plans must be developed to include the megacities of the tropical world.
Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to Enable Use of Needed Products in Civilian and Military Emergencies, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 278 KB - 6 pages]
S. L. Nightingale et al.View Abstract
The US Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) is a critical new tool for medical and public health communities and is applicable for both civilian and military use. It fills the need for timely and practical medical treatment under emergency conditions and authorizes use of the best product available for treatment or prevention when the relevant product has not already been approved or approved for this specific use by the US Food and Drug Administration. The need for and genesis of the EUA, its requirements, its broad application to civilian and military populations, and its features of particular importance to physicians and public health officials are detailed.
Live Poultry Exposures, Hong Kong and Hanoi, 2006
PDF Version [PDF - 197 KB - 3 pages]
R. Fielding et al.View Abstract
Since 1997, the largest epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) ever recorded has caused 172 human and several billion bird deaths. Recently administered questionnaires determined that live poultry exposures have declined by ≈63% in Hong Kong since 2004 and that, in Vietnam, domestic backyard exposures to poultry are likely more important than retail exposures.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia
PDF Version [PDF - 263 KB - 3 pages]
M. Hidalgo et al.View Abstract
We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae.
Human Influenza A (H5N1) Cases, Urban Areas of People’s Republic of China, 2005–2006
W. Yang et al.View Abstract
We investigated potential sources of infection for 6 confirmed influenza A (H5N1) patients who resided in urban areas of People’s Republic of China. None had known exposure to sick poultry or poultry that died from illness, but all had visited wet poultry markets before illness.
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka
PDF Version [PDF - 211 KB - 3 pages]
S. S. Nawaratna et al.View Abstract
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Sri Lanka. Of 116 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of CL, 86 were confirmed positive for Leishmania donovani. Most patients had single dry lesions, usually on the face. Patients were from 5 of the 7 agroclimatic zones in Sri Lanka.
Norovirus in Captive Lion Cub (Panthera leo)
PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
V. Martella et al.View Abstract
African lions (Panthera leo) are susceptible to viral diseases of domestic carnivores, including feline calicivirus infection. We report the identification of a novel enteric calicivirus, genetically related to human noroviruses of genogroup IV, in a lion cub that died of severe hemorrhagic enteritis.
Little Evidence for Genetic Susceptibility to Influenza A (H5N1) from Family Clustering Data
PDF Version [PDF - 433 KB - 3 pages]
V. E. Pitzer et al.View Abstract
The apparent clustering of human cases of influenza A (H5N1) among blood relatives has been considered as evidence of genetic variation in susceptibility. We show that, by chance alone, a high proportion of clusters are expected to be limited to blood relatives when infection is a rare event.
Blood Screening for Influenza
PDF Version [PDF - 258 KB - 3 pages]
M. K. Hourfar et al.View Abstract
Influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1), could threaten blood safety. We analyzed 10,272 blood donor samples with a minipool nucleic acid amplication technique. Analytical sensitivity of the method was 804 geq/mL and 444 geq/mL for generic influenza primers and influenza (H5N1) subtype–specific primers. This study demonstrates that such screening for influenza viruses is feasible.
Fatal Coxsackievirus A-16 Pneumonitis in Adult
PDF Version [PDF - 281 KB - 3 pages]
F. Legay et al.View Abstract
Coxsackievirus A-16 (CVA-16) is the agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children. We report a case of fatal pneumonitis in an adult due to a CVA-16 strain with a low (78.6%) rate of sequence homology with the reference strain. A modified, more virulent, strain of CVA-16 could be emerging.
Estimating Severe Coccidioidomycosis in California
PDF Version [PDF - 341 KB - 4 pages]
V. J. Flaherman et al.View Abstract
We used hospital discharge data to estimate incidence and distribution of coccidioidomycosis-associated hospitalizations in California. For 1997–2002, the average annual rate of hospitalization was 3.67 per 100,000 population. County of residence, older age, black race, male sex, HIV infection, and pregnancy were strongly associated with increased risk for hospitalization.
Canine-Origin G3P Rotavirus Strain in Child with Acute Gastroenteritis
PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
S. De Grazia et al.View Abstract
Infection by an animal-like strain of rotavirus (PA260/97) was diagnosed in a child with gastroenteritis in Palermo, Italy, in 1997. Sequence analysis of VP7, VP4, VP6, and NSP4 genes showed resemblance to a G3P canine strain identified in Italy in 1996. Dogs are a potential source of human viral pathogens.
Possible Zoonotic Transmission of Hepatitis E from Pet Pig to Its Owner
PDF Version [PDF - 249 KB - 3 pages]
C. Renou et al.View Abstract
Hepatitis E is transmitted mainly by water or food, but in industrialized countries, all routes of transmission have not been identified. We describe possible zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus that involved direct contact between a pet pig and its owner.
Virus Detection and Monitoring of Viral Load in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Patients
PDF Version [PDF - 309 KB - 4 pages]
R. Wölfel et al.View Abstract
We developed a real-time reverse transcription–-PCR that detected 1,164 copies/mL of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus per milliliter of serum at 95% probability (probit analysis) and was 100% concordant with nested PCR on 63 samples from 31 patients with confirmed infection. Infected patients who died appeared to have higher viral loads; low viral loads correlated with IgG detection.
Zinc Cream and Reliability of Tuberculosis Skin Testing
PDF Version [PDF - 277 KB - 4 pages]
V. B. Rao et al.View Abstract
In 50 healthy Peruvian shantytown residents, zinc cream applied to tuberculosis skin-test sitescaused a 32% increase in induration compared with placebo cream. Persons with lower plasma zinc had smaller skin-test reactions and greater augmentation with zinc cream. Zinc deficiency caused false-negative skin-test results, and topical zinc supplementation augmented antimycobacterial immune responses enough to improve diagnosis.
Three Rickettsioses, Darnley Island, Australia
PDF Version [PDF - 203 KB - 3 pages]
N. B. Unsworth et al.View Abstract
We report 3 rickettsioses on Darnley Island, Australia, in the Torres Strait. In addition to previously described cases of Flinders Island spotted fever (Rickettsia honei strain “marmionii”), we describe 1 case of Queensland tick typhus (R. australis) and 2 cases of scrub typhus caused by a unique strain (Orientia tsutsugamushi).
Chlamydophila psittaci Transmission from Pet Birds to Humans
PDF Version [PDF - 232 KB - 3 pages]
D. Vanrompay et al.View Abstract
We studied zoonotic transmission of Chlamydophila psittaci in 39 breeding facilities for Psittaciformes (cockatoos, parrots, parakeets, lories) that frequently used antimicrobial drugs. Genotypes A or E/B were detected in 14.9% of humans at these facilities. Information on antimicrobial drug use in Psittaciformes and a C. psittaci vaccine are urgently required.
Rickettsia parkeri in Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 309 KB - 3 pages]
I. Silveira et al.View Abstract
We report finding Rickettsia parkeri in Brazil in 9.7% of Amblyomma triste ticks examined. An R. parkeri isolate was successfully established in Vero cell culture. Molecular characterization of the agent was performed by DNA sequencing of portions of the rickettsial genes gltA, htrA, ompA, and ompB.
Tickborne Encephalitis, Southwestern France
PDF Version [PDF - 284 KB - 3 pages]
B. Herpe et al.View Abstract
We report an autochthonous human case of tickborne encephalitis (TBE) in the Bordeaux area, southwestern France. The patient was a farmer who had severe encephalomyelitis. ELISA and neutralization assay of serum and cerebrospinal fluid established the diagnosis. This potential new endemic focus for TBE virus should be further investigated.
Point-of-Use Water Treatment and Use among Mothers in Malawi
PDF Version [PDF - 278 KB - 4 pages]
L. J. Stockman et al.View Abstract
A national household survey was conducted in Malawi to determine awareness and use of a socially marketed water treatment product. In all, 64% of mothers were aware of the product, and 7% were using it. Both poor and rural mothers had lower awareness and use rates. Targeting promotion to rural populations could enhance program effectiveness.
Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses
PDF Version [PDF - 103 KB - 3 pages]
M. Chan et al.
Anthrax in Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), Italy
PDF Version [PDF - 134 KB - 2 pages]
A. Fasanella et al.
Invasive Fresh Water Snail, China
PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 2 pages]
Q. Wang et al.
Community-acquired Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producers, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 129 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Doi et al.
Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, Yuncheng, China, 2006
PDF Version [PDF - 171 KB - 3 pages]
L. Wang et al.
Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium vivax, Brazilian Amazon
PDF Version [PDF - 103 KB - 2 pages]
F. S. Filho et al.
Avian Influenza Risk Perceptions, Laos
PDF Version [PDF - 109 KB - 3 pages]
H. Barennes et al.
Norovirus GII.4 Strains and Outbreaks, Australia
PDF Version [PDF - 149 KB - 3 pages]
E. T. Tu et al.
Echinostoma malayanum Infection, the Philippines
PDF Version [PDF - 119 KB - 2 pages]
V. Y. Belizario et al.
Zoonotic Pathogens in Ixodes scapularis, Michigan
PDF Version [PDF - 138 KB - 3 pages]
S. A. Hamer et al.
Possible Avian Influenza (H5N1) from Migratory Bird, Egypt
PDF Version [PDF - 124 KB - 2 pages]
M. D. Saad et al.
Books and Media
About the Cover
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
Get Email Updates
To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address:
- Page created: July 10, 2012
- Page last updated: July 10, 2012
- Page last reviewed: July 10, 2012
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
Office of the Director (OD)