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Volume 13, Number 7—July 2007

Letter

Avian Influenza Risk Perceptions, Laos

Hubert Barennes*Comments to Author , Bertrand Martinez-Aussel*, Phengta Vongphrachanh*†, and Michel Strobel*
Author affiliations: *Institut Francophone pour la Médecine Tropicale, Vientiane, Lao PDR; †Ministry of Health, Vientiane, Lao PDR;

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Table

Avian influenza knowledge, risk perception, and poultry-keeping behavior, Lao People’s Democratic Republic*

Characteristic Urban, n (%) Semiurban, n (%) Rural, n (%) Total, n (%) p value 95% CI
Total persons interviewed 461 192 189 842
Illiterate 175 (37.9) 60 (31.2) 181 (95.7) 416 (49.4) <0.001 47.1–54
Occupation
Housewife 126 (27.3) 24(12.5) 94 (50) 244 (28.9) <0.001 32–25.9
Farmer 25 (5.4) 36 (18.75) 75 (40) 136 (16.1) <0.001 13.7–18.6
Government worker 103 (22.4) 22 (11.5) 3 (1.5) 128 (15.2) <0.001 12.8–17.6
None 2 (4.3) 0 24 (12.6) 36 (4.2) <0.001 2.9–5.6
Keep poultry 185 (40.2) 97(50.5) 159 (84.3) 441 (59.4) <0.001 19 (17–20)
>1 poultry death, past 2 mo† 58 (31.3) 84 (86.5) 95 (59.7) 239 (54.1) <0.000 49.5–58.8
Any poultry deaths, past 2 y
95 (51.3)
62 (63.9)
141 (88.6)
298 (65.5)
<0.001
63.2–71.9
Response to dead poultry (n = 399)‡
Bury dead chickens 105 (56.7) 87 (89.6) 118 (74.2) 310 (70.2) <0.001 66–74.6
Throw out dead chickens 50 (27.0) 5 (5.1) 9 (5.6) 64 (14.5) <0.001 11.2–17.8
Eat dead chickens 1 (0.5) 2 (2.0) 7 (4.4) 10 (2.2) 0.06 0.9–3.7
Treat other chickens 0 0 5 (2.6) 5 (0.5) <0.001 0.07–1.1
Apply lime to backyard 0 8 (1.7) 1 (0.5) 9 (1.0) <0.001 0.03–1.7
Sell dead chickens 0 1 (1.0) 0 1 (0.1) 0.1 0.00–0.3
Report dead chickens
0
0
0
0
NA
NA
Poultry location
Henhouse 39 (21.0) 4 (4.4) 7 (4.4) 50 (11.3) <0.001 8.4–14.3
Inside house 8 (4.3) 1 (1.03) 2 (12.6) 11 (2.4) 0.003 1–3.9
Near house (<5 m) 78 (42.2) 59 (61) 28 (17.7) 165 (37.4) <0.001 32.9–41.9
Far from house (>5 m)
58 (31.3)
30 (31)
114 (71.7)
202 (45.8)
<0.001
41.2–50.5
Regular poultry vaccination
81 (43.7)
54 (55.6)
19 (11.9)
154 (34.2)
<0.001
30.5–39.4
Information source
Never heard 8 (1.7) 11 (5.1) 7 (3.7) 26/837 (3.1) 0.02 1.9–4.3
Heard from television 388 (86.4) 158 (87.8) 178 (97.8) 724 (89.2) <0.001 (86.4–90.8)
Heard from radio 19 (4.2) 12 (6.6) 4 (2.2) 35 (4.3) 0.1 (3.02–5.9)
Read in paper
6 (1.3)
1 (0.5)
0
7 (0.8)
0.003
(0.34–1.8)
Perceive risk for avian influenza
In Laos 369 (81.6) 110 (60.7) 8 (4.3) 487 (59.6) <0.001 56.3–63
At home
293 (64.8)
72 (40.0)
5 (2.6)
370 (45.7)
<0.001
41.9–48.8
Unable to describe human disease 116 (25.6) 116 (63.7) 182 (97.5) 414 (50.7) <0.001 47.3–54.2
Able to describe as lethal for poultry
306 (67.5)
90 (49.7)
2(1.0)
398 (48.7)
<0.0001
45.3–52.2
Behavior change‡ 416 (91.8) 125 (69.0) 7 (3.8) 548 (67.1) <0.0001 63.9–70.4
Stopped eating chicken 328 (72.4) 120 (66.2) 0 448 (54.9) <0.000 51.5–58.3
Avoided contact 348 (76.8) 60 (33.1) 3 (1.6) 411 (50.3) <0.000 46.9–53.8
Stopped keeping poultry 335 (73.9) 13 (7.1) 1 (0.5) 349 (42.7) <0.000 39.4–46.2
Wore mask 338 (74.6) 10 (5.5) 1 (0.5) 349 (42.7) <0.000 39.4–46.2
Washed hands after contact 100 (22.0) 3 (1.6) 1 (0.5) 104 (12.7) <0.002 10.5–15
Ate well-cooked chicken 155 (34.2) 3 (1.6) 1 (0.5) 159 (19.4) <0.000 16.8–22.2

*CI, confidence interval; NA, not applicable.
†Mean nos. of poultry deaths were 15 (range 10–19), 27 (range 22–32), and 15 (range 13–18) for urban, semiurban, and rural areas, respectively. Total mean = 19.3; p<0.0001; 95% CI, 17.0–18.4.
‡95% CIs were 89–94, 62–76, and 1–7 for urban, semiurban, and rural areas, respectively.

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