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Volume 13, Number 7—July 2007

Historical Review

Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City

Vernon J. Lee*†‡Comments to Author , Mark I. Chen*, Siew Pang Chan*, Chia Siong Wong*, Jeffery Cutter§, Kee Tai Goh§, and Paul Anath Tambyah¶#
Author affiliations: *Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; †National Healthcare Group, Singapore; ‡Ministry of Defence, Singapore; §Ministry of Health, Singapore; ¶National University of Singapore, Singapore; #National University Hospital, Singapore;

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Table

Estimated deaths and mortality rates due to influenza during the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic

CountryNo. deaths (in 1,000s)Mortality rate (per 1,000), %References
United States402–6753.9–6.5 (8,1113)
Canada50.0–51.06.1–6.3 (8,12)
Denmark6.02–12.42.0–4.1 (8,12)
England116–2003.4–5.8 (8,12)
Spain257–31112.3–14.9 (8,12)
Portugal59.0–1599.8–26.4 (8,12)
India1856.1–43.9 (8,12)
Japan368–5176.7–9.4 (8,12)
Ceylon (Sri Lanka)51.0–91.610.0–17.9 (8,12,14)
Taiwan25.4–52.86.9–14.4 (8,12)
The Philippines81.0–2888.0–28.4 (8,12)
Argentina10.2–46.01.2–5.4 (8,12)
Australia14.5–15.42.7–2.9 (8,12)
Kenya104–15040–57.8 (8)
South Africa30044.3 (8)
British Honduras (Belize)1.01–2.002.3–4.6 (15)
Trinidad and Tobago0.30–1.000.1–0.2 (15)
Singapore2.87–6.667.8–18.0This report

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